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- 1. PUCPR 2007If he loses election, he __________ from public life.
- 2. FGV 2015Read the text and answer the question(s). Argentina defaults – Eighth time unlucky Cristina Fernández argues that her country’s latest default is different. She is missing the point. Aug 2nd 2014 ARGENTINA’S first bond, issued in 1824, was supposed to have had a lifespan of 46 years. Less than four years later, the government defaulted. Resolving the ensuing stand-off with creditors took 29 years. Since then seven more defaults have followed, the most recent this week, when Argentina failed to make a payment on bonds issued as partial compensation to victims of the previous default, in 2001. Most investors think they can see a pattern in all this, but Argentina’s president, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, insists the latest default is not like the others. Her government, she points out, had transferred the full $539m it owed to the banks that administer the bonds. It is America’s courts (the bonds were issued under American law) that blocked the payment, at the behest of the tiny minority of owners of bonds from 2001 who did not accept the restructuring Argentina offered them in 2005 and again in 2010. These “hold-outs”, balking at the 65% haircut the restructuring entailed, not only persuaded a judge that they should be paid in full but also got him to 1freeze payments on the restructured bonds until Argentina coughs up. Argentina claims that paying the hold-outs was impossible. It is not just that they are “vultures” as Argentine officials often put it, who bought the bonds for cents on the dollar after the previous default and are now holding those who accepted the restructuring (accounting for 93% of the debt) to ransom. The main problem is that a clause in the restructured bonds prohibits Argentina from offering the hold-outs better terms without paying everyone else the same. Since it cannot afford to do that, it says it had no choice but to default. Yet it is not certain that the clause requiring equal treatment of all bondholders would have applied, given that Argentina would not have been paying the hold-outs voluntarily, but on the courts’ orders. Moreover, some owners of the restructured bonds had agreed to waive their rights; 2had Argentina made a concerted effort to persuade the remainder to do the same, it might have succeeded. Lawyers and bankers have suggested various ways around the clause in question, which expires at the end of the year. But Argentina’s government was slow to consider these options or negotiate with the hold-outs, hiding instead behind indignant nationalism. Ms Fernández is right that the consequences of America’s court rulings have been perverse, unleashing a big financial dispute in an attempt to solve a relatively small one. But 3hers is not the first government to be hit with an awkward verdict. Instead of railing against it, she should have tried to minimize the harm it did. Defaulting has helped no one: none of the bondholders will now be paid, Argentina looks like a pariah again, and its economy will remain starved of loans and investment. Happily, much of the damage can still be undone. It is not too late to strike a deal with the hold-outs or back an ostensibly private effort to buy out their claims. A quick fix would make it easier for Argentina to borrow again internationally. That, in turn, would speed development of big oil and gas deposits, the income from which could help ease its money troubles. More important, it would help to change 4perceptions of Argentina as a financial rogue state. Over the past year or so Ms Fernández seems to have been trying to rehabilitate Argentina’s image and resuscitate its faltering economy. She settled financial disputes with government creditors and with Repsol, a Spanish oil firm whose Argentine assets she had expropriated in 2012. This week’s events have overshadowed all that. For its own sake, and everyone else’s, 5Argentina should hold its nose and do a deal with the hold-outs. (http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21610263. Adapted) The excerpt from the reference 2 – had Argentina made a concerted effort to persuade the remainder to do the same, it might have succeeded. – denotes an idea of
- 3. UECE 2007I'd have gone to that party if they _______ me.
- 4. MACKENZIE 2016The following text refers to questions below. Science Without Borders Program to be Suspended 09/03/2015 - 09H02 VALDO CRUZ FLÁVIA FOREQUE Owing to lack of funds, the Planalto Palace has decided to suspend the offer of new scholarships as part of the program Science Without Borders for next year. As Folha has learnt, the budget defined by the government’s economic team for next year, a total of R$2,1 billion (USD$559 million), is only enough to cover students who are already living abroad on the program. The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Students (CAPES, in its Portuguese acronym) said that the designated resources would be used to “pay for 13.330 scholarships amongst undergraduates and postgraduates” in 2016, under its supervision. The National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPQ), another government agency that encourages research, will be allocated resources for another 22.610 scholarships. In total, both institutions will send 14.050 undergraduates abroad in the second semester of this year. This group of students enters the program under last year’s selection process. Undergraduates account for the majority of those enrolled in the program, with 79.5% of the scholarships granted. Advisors to President Rousseff have admitted that the government was considering an even harsher cut to the program, but the idea was rejected owing to the likely negative effects it would produce. The cut for Science Without Borders next year is 40.3% from last year’s budget of R$ 3.5 billion (USD$931 million). Cutting just one percentage point more would mean disrupting the studies of those who have already been selected and left for university abroad. Launched in July 2011, the program has become one of President Rousseff’s flagship policies. After the creation of 101.000 places by last year, the promise for her second term was to create another 100.000 . The high value of the dollar, however, has drastically increased the cost of program. The program pays foreign universities for the tuition of Brazilian students, as well as providing maintenance grants to the students themselves. While in July 2011 the dollar was worth R$1.55 now the exchange rate is close to R$3.70 There is currently no date defined for the call of new applications to the program. Last year, the selection process began in August. The current expectation is that if the government allocates more funds for the program next year, the main focus will be postgraduates. Questioned on this, Capes would not comment. The agency said, “All the Ministry of Education programs will be maintained” in 2016. “The Ministry is conducting a detailed analysis of the budget in order to determine the scope of the programs for next year,” it said in a statement. PRONATEC If Science Without Borders is suspended in 2016, another federal education program will be significantly expanded next year, according to the budget provisions. In 2016, the government is expected to offer five million places on technical courses and on the National Program of Access to Technical Education and Employment (PRONATEC), both for those enrolling in the program as well as those continuing their training. This year, thanks to budget cuts, the numbers of offered places on the program fell to nearly a million, 66.6% less than the three million in 2014. Added to the cost of covering those already enrolled, the total cost of the program in 2015 is R$4 billion (USD$1.1 billion). After hitting its target of enrolling eight million students, the government’s aim was to enroll 12 million new students in its second term. If 2016’s targets are reached, the government will achieve exactly 50% of the target in the first two years of its second term. The sentence “If Science Without Borders is suspended, another federal education program will be significantly expanded” written in the third conditional form is
- 5. UFRGS 2014Britain has met the heir who will certainly change the face of monarchy for ever. Kate and William’s son enters this world as a Royal Highness, destined to be king of his country. Though his mother is a Duchess, the title 1__________ disguise the fact that there has never been a royal child quite like Kate’s. For while William descends from a line of monarchs, this baby boy’s maternal grandparents 5once worked for British Airways and now run their own company. This new prince will become the first British monarch with working-class blood running through his veins. Monarchy these days is a precarious business, and increasingly hard to justify – not only in terms of the funds taxpayers donate to the Crown, but in a wider world in which royal families seem ever more anachronistic. This baby has arrived at a time of profound social change and evolution – 2__________ is why I believe a royal child with middle-class antecedents can provide the social alchemy that will secure the future of the House of Windsor. William and Kate, a modern couple, lived together quite openly for several years before their marriage, a 6sensible decision 7condoned by the Queen, which 4__________ been seen as unthinkable less than a decade earlier. This was after prince Charles had moved in with his divorced former mistress, Camila Parker Bowles, a situation that would have been equally unacceptable a few years ago. All this evidences a rapidly evolving monarchy. Who would have suspected that the Queen would have been seen 8pretending to parachute into the Olympic stadium with James Bond? And who 3__________ predict how far this process of evolution will have travelled by the time the new prince reaches the throne? From the pit to the Palace in three generations? Surely it is the perfect fairytale for a nation that grows more middle-class 9by the year. Adaptado de: THORTON, Michael. A very middle class baby who will secure the future of the royal family. Daily Mail. 22 jul 2013. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 06 set. 2013. Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente as lacunas do segmento abaixo, na ordem em que aparecem. If the present Queen __________ for another ten years, Charles __________ to the throne at 75.
- 6. UEMG 2015Read the article below and answer the question(s) that follow. Virtual people, real friends by Anna Pickard (The Guardian) The benefits of forming friendships with those we meet online are obvious, so why is the idea still treated with such disdain? Another week, another survey claiming to reveal great truths about ourselves. This one says that people are increasingly turning “online friends” into people they’d think worthy of calling real-life friends. Well, that’s stating the obvious, I would have thought! If there’s a more perfect place for making friends, I have yet to find it. However, when surveys like this are reported in the media, it’s always with a slight air of “it’s a crazy, crazy world!” And whenever the subject crops up in the conversation, it’s clear that people look down on friends like these. In fact some members of my family still refer to my partner of six years as my “Internet Boyfriend.” It’s the shocked reaction that surprises me as if people on the internet were not “real” at all. Certainly, people play a character online quite often – they may be a more confident or more argumentative version of their real selves – but what’s the alternative? Is meeting people at work so much better than making friends in a virtual world? Perhaps, but for some a professional distance between their “work” selves and their “social” selves is necessary, especially, if they tend to let their guard down and might say or do something they will later regret. Those people disapproving of online friendships argue that the concept of “friendship” is used loosely in a world driven by technology, in which you might have a thousand online friends. They make a distinction between “social connections” – 1acquaintances who are only one click away – and meaningful human interaction, which they say requires time and effort. They note that for many Facebook “friends,” conversation is a way of exchanging information quickly and efficiently rather than being a social activity. However, I’ve found that far from being the home of oddballs and potential serial killers, the internet is full of like-minded people. For the first time in history, we’re lucky to enough to choose friends not by location or luck, but by those who have similar interests and senses of humour, or passionate feelings about the same things. The friends I’ve made online might be spread wide geographically, but I’m closer to them than anyone I went to school with, by millions miles. They are the best friends I have. Obviously, there will be concerns about the dangers of online friendship. There are always stories buzzing around such as “man runs off with the woman he met on Second Life” or people who meet their “soulmate” online and are never seen again. But people are people, whether online or not. As for “real” friendship dying out, surely, is social networking simply redefining our notion of what this is in the twenty-first century? The figures – half a billion Facebook users worldwide – speak for themselves. And technology has allowed countless numbers of these people to keep in close contact with their loved ones, however far away they are. Without it, many disabled or household people might go without social contact at all. Call me naive, call me a social misfit, I don’t care. Virtual people make best real friends. Adapted from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/jan/02/internet-relationships Which alternative contains the correct conditional to complete the gap below? He would have chatted with his Facebook friends last night if he ___________ so busy.
- 7. UNESP 2008HERE IS THE FIRST PART OF A LETTER, WRITTEN BY A 98-YEAR-OLD PENSIONED LADY TO HER BANK MANAGER. Dear Sir, I am writing to thank you for bouncing my cheque with which I endeavoured to pay my plumber last month. By my calculations, three "nanoseconds" must have elapsed between his presenting the cheque and the arrival in my account of the funds needed to honour it. I refer, of course, to the automatic monthly deposit of my Pension, an arrangement, which, I admit, has been in place for only eight years You are to be commended for seizing that brief window of opportunity, and also for debiting my account to the tune of 30 pounds by way of a penalty for the inconvenience caused to your bank. My thankfulness springs from the manner in which this incident has caused me to rethink my errant financial ways. I noticed that whereas I personally attend to your telephone calls and letters, when I try to contact you, I am confronted by that impersonal, overcharging, prerecorded, faceless entity, which your bank has become. From now on, I, like you, choose only to deal with a flesh-and-blood person. My mortgage and loan payment will therefore and hereafter no longer be automatic, but will arrive at your bank by cheque, addressed personally and confidentially to an employee at your bank whom you must nominate. Be aware that it is an offence under the Postal Act for any other person to open such an envelope. Please find attached an Application Contact Status, which I require your chosen employee to complete. I am sorry it runs to eight pages, but in order that I know as much about him or her as your bank knows about me, there is no alternative. Please note that a Solicitor must countersign all copies of his or her medical history, and the mandatory details of his/her financial situation (income, debts, assets and liabilities) must be accompanied by documented proof. (Adapted from: forums.film.com/showthead.php?t=15516) Indique a alternativa que preenche corretamente a sentença: If the pension deposit ......... earlier, the lady ......................... in trouble.
- 8. G1 - IFBA 2012“We need a new environmental consciousness on a global basis. To do this, we need to educate people.” Mikhail Gorbachev (Disponível em http://edugreen.teri.res.in/misc/quotes.htm. Acesso em: 12.07.2011) A opção que melhor apresenta a mensagem da citação de Mikhail Gorbachev é:
- 9. PUC-RJ 2007IN CRISES, PEOPLE TEND TO LIVE, OR DIE, TOGETHER Shankar Vedantam How the disaster starts does not matter: 1It could be a plane crashing into the World Trade Center, 5it could be the sea receding rapidly ahead of an advancing tsunami, it could be smoke billowing through a nightclub. Human beings in New York, Sri Lanka and Rhode Island all do the same thing in such situations. They turn to each other. They talk. 15They hang around, trying to arrive at a 10shared understanding of what is happening. 16When we look back on such events with the benefit of hindsight, this apparent inactivity can be horrifying. "Get out now!" we want to scream at those people in the upper stories of the South Tower of the World Trade Center, as 6they 11huddle around trying to understand what caused an explosion in the North Tower at 8:46 on a Tuesday morning in September. 17"You only have 16 minutes before your exit will be cut off," we want to tell them. "Don't try to understand what is happening. Just go." 2Experts who study disasters are slowly coming to realize that rather than try to change human behavior to adapt to building codes and workplace rules, it may be necessary to adapt technology and rules to human behavior. For all the disaster preparations put in place since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, the behavior of people confronted with ambiguous new information remains one of the most serious challenges for disaster planners. 18Computer models 12assume that people will flow out of a building like water, emptying through every possible exit. But the reality is far different. People talk. They confer. They go back to their desk. They change their mind. They try to exit the building the way they came in, rather than through the nearest door. Building engineers at the World Trade Center had estimated that escaping people would move at a rate of more than three feet per second. On Sept. 11, 2001, said Jason Averill, an engineer at the National Institute for Standards and Technology who studies human behavior during evacuations, people escaped at only one-fitfh that speed. Although the towers were only one-third to one-half full, the stairwells were at capacity, he said. 3Had the buildings been full, Averill said, about 14,000 people would probably have died. That is because the larger the group, the greater the effort and time needed to build a common understanding of the event and a consensus about a course of action, said sociologist Benigno E. Aguirre of the University of Delaware. If a single person in a group does not want to take an alarm seriously, he or she can 13impede the escape of the entire group. The picture of what happened on Sept. 11 is very different from 14conventional assumptions about crowd behavior, in 7which it is assumed that people would push each other out of the way to save their own lives. In actuality, 4human beings in crisis behave more nobly - and 8this could also be their undoing. 19People reach out not only to build a shared understanding of the event but also to help one another. In so doing, they may delay their own escape. This may be why groups often perish or survive together - people are unwilling to escape if someone they know and care about is left behind. This may be why in fire disasters, Aguirre said, entire families often perish. "The most important factor for human beings is our affinitive behavior," he said. "You love your child and wife and parents; 9that is what makes you human. In conditions of great danger, many people continue to do that. … People will go back into the fire to try to rescue loved ones." Adapted from the Washington Post Monday, September 11, 2006; Page A02 "Had the buildings been full,... about 14,000 people would probably have died." (ref. 3) means the same as:
- 10. EPCAR (AFA) 2012How to Become a Stunt Double A stunt double stands in for the actor when the action or fight scene gets dangerous or goes beyond the capabilities of the actor. To become a stunt double, you must be in excellent physical condition and have special skills. Instructions 1. Exercise regularly if you want to become a stunt double. Eat nutritiously for optimal health and strength. 2. Take lots of lessons because the more skills you have, the better. Gymnastics is extremely important in becoming a stunt double. Get good at trampoline, skateboarding, swimming and high board diving. Take scuba diving lessons. Practice rock climbing and horseback riding. Learn to water ski and snow ski. 3. Enroll in martial arts classes, especially judo. Judo is excellent for learning how to break falls. 4. Get training in CPR(1) and First Aid. This training looks good on a résumé, especially for stunt double careers. Injuries happen. 5. Have valid driver's licenses for both car and motorcycle. Take advanced driving classes so you'll be qualified for difficult driving scenes. 6. Move to Hollywood and plan to work your way up from the bottom. You must get into the Screen Actors Guild(2) and have a union card(3). Taken from Google (1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (2) Annual prize promoted by the American Syndicate of Actors. (3) A card certifying membership in an organization. After reading the first item of the instructions, mark the option that completes the gap in the converted sentence below. “If you want to become a stunt double you ________ exercise regularly.”
- 11. MACKENZIE 2009Speak Up GROW YOUR OWN TEETH Recent advances in stem cell research are giving older people the hope that they may soon be able to throw away their dentures in favor of the real thing. If this dental dream ___(I)___ a reality, stem cells ___(II)___ taken from the patient, cultured in a lab and then reimplanted under the gum in the patient's jaw where the tooth is missing. A healthy tooth is expected to grow in two months. British scientists have already successfully experimented on mice, and similar experiments in humans are expected to get underway shortly. www.speakup.com.br The words that properly fill in blanks I and II, in the text, are:
- 12. MACKENZIE 2014Which sentence is grammatically correct about the picture above?
- 13. ESC. NAVAL 2012What is the correct way to complete the sentence below? I’m going to leave early tomorrow in case (1) ____ a lot of traffic.
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