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This story is ____ than the one you told us yesterday.
E-mails are ____ means of communication nowadays.
Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food Horror stories about the food industry have been with us since 1906, when Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle told ugly truths about how America produces its meat. Nowadays, things have got much better, and in some ways much worse. The U.S. agricultural industry can now produce unlimited quantities of meat and grains at remarkably cheap prices. But it does so at a high cost to the environment, animals and humans. Some of those hidden prices are the erosion of fertile farmland and the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among farm animals. Some Americans are noticing such warnings and working to transform the way the country eats — farmers who are raising sustainable food in ways that don't ruin the earth. Documentaries and the work of journalists are reprising Sinclair's work, awakening a sleeping public to the realities of how we eat. Change is also coming from the very top. First Lady Michelle Obama's White House garden has so far raised a lot of organic produce — and tons of powerful symbolism. Nevertheless, despite increasing public awareness, sustainable agriculture, remains a tiny enterprise: according to recent data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, less than 1% of American cropland is farmed organically. Sustainable food is also pricier than conventional food and harder to find. Unless Americans radically rethink the way they grow and consume food, they face a future of eroded farmland and high health costs. Sustainable food has an elitist reputation, but each of us depends on the soil, animals and plants. And as every farmer knows, if you don't take care of your land, it can't take care of you. By BRYAN WALSH Friday, Aug. 21, 2009. (Adapted from: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1917458,00.html.) The problem with organic food is that it is_______________________ than conventional food.
EPCAR (AFA) 2012
How to Become a Stunt Double A stunt double stands in for the actor when the action or fight scene gets dangerous or goes beyond the capabilities of the actor. To become a stunt double, you must be in excellent physical condition and have special skills. Instructions 1. Exercise regularly if you want to become a stunt double. Eat nutritiously for optimal health and strength. 2. Take lots of lessons because the more skills you have, the better. Gymnastics is extremely important in becoming a stunt double. Get good at trampoline, skateboarding, swimming and high board diving. Take scuba diving lessons. Practice rock climbing and horseback riding. Learn to water ski and snow ski. 3. Enroll in martial arts classes, especially judo. Judo is excellent for learning how to break falls. 4. Get training in CPR(1) and First Aid. This training looks good on a résumé, especially for stunt double careers. Injuries happen. 5. Have valid driver's licenses for both car and motorcycle. Take advanced driving classes so you'll be qualified for difficult driving scenes. 6. Move to Hollywood and plan to work your way up from the bottom. You must get into the Screen Actors Guild(2) and have a union card(3). Taken from Google (1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (2) Annual prize promoted by the American Syndicate of Actors. (3) A card certifying membership in an organization. Look at the bold comparative form (item 2). Choose the option that contains a similar construction.
Harvard conducted one of the longest and most comprehensive studies of human development — the 75 year old Grant Study — that’s reached some fascinating conclusions regarding the recipe for leading a happy life. The sample group was comprised of healthy male Harvard college students who, over the course of their lifetime, agreed to meet with an array of scientists and researchers who measured their psychological, physical and anthropological traits. Though all identities are confidential, it was recently discovered that John F. Kennedy was a sample participant. Following these men through times of war, their careers, parenthood and old age, the Grant Study has amassed an exorbitant amount of data that deeply reflects the human condition. What can be concluded from seven decades of data? It is quite simple actually; warm relationships between parents, spouses, children and friends have the greatest impact on your health and happiness in old age. The study found that 93 percent of the sample group who were thriving at age 65, had a close relationship with a sibling when they were younger. As George Vaillant, the lead director of the study states, it can all be boiled down into five simple words: “Happiness is love. Full stop.” (Business Insider.) http://www.goodnet.org/articles/1055 (acesso em 10/06/2013) Substituindo os adjetivos long e comprehensive, respectivamente, por easy e rich na oração “Harvard conducted one of the longest and most comprehensive studies of human development” (ref. 2), teremos:
INNOVATIVE WAYS OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE The 8world of language teaching is constantly changing. Here are some 7recent examples of the new approaches being developed. LEARNING LANGUAGES WITH THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES The current development of Information a Communication Technologies (ICT) provides a 12wider variety of ways of learning languages. 2Computer assisted learning materials that include the authentic 9voice of a native 13speaker, the text and even moving images can enhance your progress in language learning. Applying the internet and CD-ROMs in learning can be very beneficial. 18Nowadays Web-based learning environments and "chat groups" link language 16learners from different countries to learn and exchange ideas 17together. Good communication between people is the gratest 10benefit of learning languages! Multilingual information society, text translators, dictionaries, ... MULTILINGUAL COMPREHENSION It is usually much 14easier to learn to understand a foreign language than to speak it fluently. This is especially 3the case where languages are for historical reasons closely related, 4for example Dutch and German or Italian and Spanish. European and international communication can be 15greatly enhanced if more people can learn to understand each other's languages, 5so that participants in multilingual conversations or correspondence can speak or write their own language. 1Fluent 11understanding also tends to be a step 6on the way towards fluent speech. http://europa.eu.int.comm/education/policies/lang/languages/lang/teaching_en.html.26/05/2004 A palavra wider (ref. 12) apresenta uma marca de comparação. A mesma marca de comparação é apresentada na palavra
This is ____ book I have ever read!
EPCAR (AFA) 2015
JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyone's favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and 1killing jobs - from tailors to paralegals - for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in "a decade or two". The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: 2Where do machines work better than people? 3Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, it's projected that the next 4wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are "likely to diminish over the next decades". Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, 5people responsible for our safety, and management positions are 6the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but they're bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they can't answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at pattern-recognition and driving. So what are we better at? 7The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and 8caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesn't make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new 9opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation 10for the last three decades doesn't guarantee that they'll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. 11The truth is scarier. 12We don't really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant – a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble – to make something by joining separate parts to creep – to move slowly, quietly and carefully Mark the option that contains an adjective in the same form as in “The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers [...]” (reference7).
Everest is ____ mountain in the world.
Porto Alegre is ____ than Manaus.
Boys are usually ____ than girls.
This is ____ wine in the store.
Em “the more I learn, the less clear anything gets”, mantém-se o mesmo sentido em:
Trying to predict what will happen as our planet warms up is not easy. We know that ice at the poles is melting and this is making sea levels rise. Warmer temperatures are likely to change other aspects of the weather. Some countries, such as those in North Africa, may become ____I___ , while other areas, such as Northern Europe, may become ________II__________. There will probably be more storms, droughts, and flooding. (Adaptado de Impact of climate change. In: The New Children’s Encyclopedia. London: 2009. p. 78) As lacunas I e II no texto acima podem ser completadas, de forma correta e na mesma sequência, pela opção
That Italian car is ____ than this old car here.
EPCAR (AFA) 2013
Why Bilinguals Are Smarter Speaking two languages 5rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that 10the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with 11a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even protecting from dementia in old age. This view of bilingualism is 1remarkably different from 12the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that delayed a child’s academic and intellectual development. They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles. Bilinguals, 2for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital bins — one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle. In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. 13The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task. 6The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s 3so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving. 14Why does the fight between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought 7the bilingual advantage was centered primarily in an ability for inhibition that was improved by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals 4even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page. The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and 8there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life). In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In an initial set of tests, the infants were presented with an audio stimulus and then shown a puppet on one side of a screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set of tests, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not. Bilingualism’s effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism — measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency in each language — were more resistant than others to the beginning of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of occurrence. Nobody ever doubted the power of language. 9But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint? Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/18/opinion/sunday/the-benefitsof-bilingualism.html Considering the use of comparison, mark the INCORRECT option.
Salt Uses & Tips 1Beside making food delicious, it's believed there are more than 14,000 uses for salt, and our grandmothers were probably familiar with most of them. A number of these uses were for simple things around the home before the advent of modern chemicals and cleaners. 2Many of these salt uses are still valid today and can be much cheaper and more environmentally- friendly than more sophisticated products. We make no guarantee about the results if you try any of these uses and tips, but there must be something to them since they have been handed down over the years in many households. Most of these salt uses have stood the test of time. Salt Uses&Tips: Health&Beauty Gargling – Stir 1/2 teaspoon salt in an 8 - ounce glass of warm water for use as a gargle for sore throats. Cleaning teeth - Mix one part salt to two parts baking soda after pulverizing the salt in a blender or rolling it on a kitchen board with a tumbler before mixing. It whitens teeth, helps remove plaque and it is healthy for the gums. Washingmouth - Mix equal parts of salt and baking soda as a mouth wash that sweetens the breath. Reducing eye puffiness - Mix one teaspoon of salt in a pint of hot water and apply pads soaked in the solution on the puffy areas. Relieving tired feet - Soak aching feet in warm water to which a handful of salt has been added. Rinse in cool water. Relieving bee stings - If stung, immediately wet the spot and cover with salt to relieve the pain. Relieving fatigue - Soak relaxed for at least ten minutes in a tub of water into which several handfuls of salt has been placed. Removing dry skin - After bathing and while still wet give yourself a massage with dry salt. It removes dead skin particles and aids the circulation. Applying facial - For a stimulating facial, mix equal parts of salt and olive oil and gently massage the face and throat with long upward and inward strokes. Remove mixture after five minutes and wash face. America’s Sea Salt Company® Fonte: Disponível em: http://www.saltworks.us/salt_info/salt-uses-and-tips.asp. Acesso em: 15 set. 2014. (adaptado) Considere o segmento “Many of these salt uses are still valid today and can be much cheaper and more environmentally-friendly than more sophisticated products” (ref. 2). Se os termos sublinhados fossem substituídos, respectivamente, por “inexpensive”, “green” e “classy”, o segmento ficaria assim:
THE FASTEST WAY TO LEARN A LANGUAGE Finally, a different approach that has millions of people talking. Using the award-winning Dynamic Immersion method, our interactive software teaches without translation, memorization, or grammar drills. Combining thousands of real-life images and voices of native speakers in step-by-step immersion process, our programs successfully replicate the experience of learning your first language. Guaranteed to teach faster and easier than only other language product or your money back. 1No question asked. Award-winning software successfully used by U.S. State department diplomats, Fortune 500 executives and millions of people worldwide. Step-by-step immersion instruction in all key language skills: LISTENING: the Rosetta Stone uses native speakers and everyday language to develop your understanding naturally and easily; READING - text exercises develop your reading skills by licking written languages to real-life objects, actions and ideas; SPEAKING - 2speech - recognition feature records and compares your voice to the native speaker's, grading your pronunciation; WRITING - dictation exercises evaluate your spelling, syntax and punctuation. Each fully interactive course includes: CD-ROM curriculum with 92 lessons; previews, exercises and testing for each lesson; 3automated tutorials that "learn" where you need help; Curriculum Text and user's Guide. Call today or buy online for an exclusive 10% discount. Rosetta Stone - Language Learning Success. Adapted from: Popular Science, Aug. 2004. Considere a frase "This program teaches FASTER THAN any other language program". A alternativa que apresenta o significado antônimo da expressão destacada é
American superstar Michael Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana on August 29, 1958 and entertained audiences nearly his entire life. A musical prodigy, Michael’s singing and dancing talents were amazingly mature and he soon became the dominant voice and focus of The Jackson 5. As the Jackson 5, they became a cutting-edge example of black crossover artists. “You basically had five working-class black boys with Afros and bell bottoms, and they really didn’t have to trade any of that stuff in order to become mainstream stars. Young Michael Jackson was the first black ‘bubblegum teen star’. He became one of the first African-Americans to be a global icon”, said Mark Anthony Neal, a professor of black popular culture at Duke University’s Department of African and African American Studies. Solo success for Michael was inevitable, and by the 1980s he had become infinitely more popular than his brotherly group. Record sales consistently orbited, culminating in the biggest-selling album of all time, “Thriller” in 1982. From his precocious abilities as a young singer in The Jackson 5 to his legendary “moon-walk” dance, Jackson continued as a pioneer in the black culture when he broke barriers by appearing on MTV and had much better luck with elaborate music videos. The former president of CBS Records, Walter Yetnikoff, remembered with scorn that MTV would not play “Billie Jean” or “Beat It” because it billed itself as a rock station. Michael Jackson co-wrote with Lionel Richie, “We Are the World,” a 1985 charity single that raised an estimated $50 million for famine relief in Africa, ushered in Live Aid and the era of celebrity philanthropy. Michael Jackson was the supreme showman who had an unrivalled knack of grabbing headlines. Michael Jackson made culture accept a person of color way before Tiger Woods, way before Oprah Winfrey, way before Barack Obama. Michael did with music what they later did in sports and in politics and in television. And no controversy will erase the historic impact. He also influenced a new generation of black musicians, including Usher, Ne-Yo and Kanye West. Jackson’s changing physical appearance in the past two decades led to criticism that he was trying to be less black. But during a 1993 interview with Oprah Winfrey, Jackson shot down rumors that he was dying his skin to make it lighter. He told the talk show host that he had vitiligo, a disorder that destroyed his skin pigmentation. Total worldwide sales of more than 350 million records over his 40-year career give just a hint of the adoration there was for the “King of Pop”. On June 25, 2009, with his sudden death at age 50 of a cardiac arrest just as he was just coming out of a four-year reclusive period and rehearsing for a sold-out London concert in July seems uncommonly cruel and tragic. Millions of dedicated fans will remember where they were “the day Michael died” and he will be remembered as a musical hero - but also a man with human flaws. Adapted from CNN.com and The Internet Movie Database.com In the sentence “Record sales consistently orbited, culminating in the biggest-selling album of all time, ‘Thriller’ in 1982”, the biggest is
Sleeping on stilts in the Amazon As 75-year-old villager Antônio Gomes told us stories of growing up in Boca do Mamirauá, a tiny settlement in the northern Amazon rainforest, I tried to ignore the tiny blue flies biting through my trousers. Despite my interest in hearing how locals survive in this remote part of the Brazilian rainforest, now a part of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, I was grateful to escape when he finished, finding refuge in one of the tall wooden houses. The houses hover some 3m above the ground. They are not unusual: almost everything in the Mamirauá reserve is on stilts, even the chicken coop. It has to be. Although much of Brazil is currently suffering one of the worst droughts in decades, this part of the Amazon is almost completely flooded for the six-month wet season. By April, the end of the rainy season, the river rises up to 10m high and overflows its banks. As a result, all living things in the forest, including locals, must adopt an amphibious lifestyle. Even the jaguars have learned to adapt by living in tree branches when the floods arrive. Only 1,000 tourists per year are allowed to visit Mamirauá, which, at 57,000sqkm, is the largest wildlife reserve in the country. Created in 1984 to save the once-endangered uakari monkey, the reserve is the most carefully managed and protected part of the Amazon – and is also home to what many consider Brazil’s most successful sustainable tourist resort, the Uakari Floating Lodge. “If [the reserve] had not been created,” guide Francisco Nogeuira said, “the rivers and lakes would be empty of fish, and who knows how many trees would remain today?" Disponível em: . In the last paragraph, it is possible to find sentences in
Water is life Nearly seventy percent of the world's fresh water is locked in ice. Most of the rest is in aquifers that we're draining much more quickly than the natural recharge rate. Two-thirds of our water is used to grow food. With eighty-three million more people on Earth each year, water demand will keep going up unless we change how we use it. Americans use about 100 gallons* of water at home each day. Millions of the world's poorest subsist on less than five gallons. 46 percent of people on Earth do not have water piped to their homes. Women in developing countries walk an average of 3.7 miles to get water. In fifteen years, 1.8 billion people will live in regions of severe water scarcity. *1 gallon = 3,785 liters (USA) Adaptado de: Barbara Kingsolver, National Geographic Magazine, April 2010. O segmento the world’s poorest, presente na segunda sentença do segundo parágrafo quer dizer:
Brazil Science Without Borders The Brazilian government’s new Science Without Borders Program will provide scholarships to undergraduate students from Brazil for one year of study at colleges and universities in the United States. Scholarships will be given primarily to students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Students in the program will return to Brazil to complete their degrees. Undergraduate students from Brazil may apply for the Science Without Borders Program scholarship beginning August 31, 2011. This program, administered by IIE, is part of the Brazilian government’s larger initiative to grant 100,000 scholarships for the best students from Brazil to study abroad at the world’s best universities. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 12 out. 2013. Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Brazil police occupy Rio favela in World Cup operation Brazilian security forces have occupied one of Rio de Janeiro's biggest slums as part of a major crackdown ahead of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics. Some 800 police and special forces moved into the Mangueira shantytown, without needing to fire a shot, having announced the raid in advance. The slum – or favela – is close to Rio's famous Maracana stadium, where the World Cup final will be played. The pre-dawn operation involved armoured vehicles and helicopters. According to the newspaper, O Globo, leaflets were thrown out of the helicopters, some with photos of wanted criminals. Others were printed with the police special forces' telephone number so that residents could pass on information about drugs traffickers or weapons. BBC Brazil correspondent Paulo Cabral says most of Mangueira's residents co-operated with the operation, as they want to rid the area of drug dealers. He says that Rio's authorities are making an effort to gain the trust of those living in the slums, who – after decades of abuse – have got used to seeing the police as their enemy. Mangueira – home to one of Rio's most famous samba schools – is the 18th favela that the authorities have occupied recently. Disponível em: . (adaptado). The only option that does not contain an adjective used in the superlative form is:
São Paulo Midnight Metropolis Your eyes snap open. "My bag. Where's my bag?" The hour glows red on the nightstand: 11:16. You jump out of bed and turn on the light. "Where is it?" Not in the closet. Not under the bed. Not in the bathroom, either. You sit on the floor, the blood pounding in your ear. "Think." Everything is in that bag – your cash, ID, credit cards. Everything. "It must be at the restaurant." You throw on some clothes, pocket the bills and loose change on the nightstand, and leave. A light rain is falling when you hit the streets. Buses roar up Avenida Ipiranga. You keep your head down, trying to look dangerous, and hurry past Praça da República. Edifício Itália, São Paulo's tallest building, stands on the opposite corner. You had dinner on the top floor earlier this evening. At the stoplight you watch as an enormous man in a silver suit leaves the building and opens the rear door of an illegally parked car. The bag he throws onto the back seat looks exactly like yours. There is a taxi across the avenue. The restaurant closes at midnight. It's 11:38. From São Paulo Midnight Metropolis, SPEAK UP Anniversary Issue, Year XIX, Number 227, April 2006, page 29. Select the phrase that is in the comparative degree of superiority.
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