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- 1. UNIFESP 2008TRACING THE CIGARETTE'S PATH FROM SEXY TO DEADLY By Howard Markel, MD In contrast to the symbol of death and disease it is today, from the early 1900s to the 1960s the cigarette was a cultural icon of sophistication, glamour and sexual allure - a highly prized commodity for one out of two Americans. Many advertising campaigns from the 1930s through the 1950s extolled the healthy virtues of cigarettes. Full-color magazine ads depicted kindly doctors clad in white coats proudly lighting up or puffing away, with slogans like "More doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette." Early in the 20th century, opposition to cigarettes took a moral rather than a health-conscious tone, especially for women who wanted to smoke, although even then many doctors were concerned that smoking was a health risk. The 1930s were a period when many Americans began smoking and the most significant health effects had not yet developed. As a result, the scientific studies of the era often failed to find clear evidence of serious pathology and had the perverse effect of exonerating the cigarette. The years after World War II, however, were a time of major breakthroughs in epidemiological thought. In 1947, Richard Doll and A. Bradford Hill of the British Medical Research Council created a sophisticated statistical technique to document the association between rising rates of lung cancer and increasing numbers of smokers. The prominent surgeon Evarts A. Graham and a medical student, Ernst L. Wynder, published a landmark article in 1950 comparing the incidence of lung cancer in their nonsmoking and smoking patients at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis. They concluded that "cigarette smoking, over a long period, is at least one important factor in the striking increase in bronchogenic cancer." Predictably, the tobacco companies derided these and other studies as mere statistical arguments or anecdotes rather than definitions of causality. In the 1980s, scientists established the revolutionary concept that nicotine is extremely addictive. The tobacco companies publicly rejected such claims, even as they took advantage of cigarettes' addictive potential by routinely spiking them with extra nicotine to make it harder to quit smoking. And their marketing memorandums document advertising campaigns aimed at youngsters to hook whole new generations of smokers. www.nytimes.com/2007/03/20/health [Adaptado] No trecho do último parágrafo do texto - "And their marketing memorandums document advertising campaigns aimed at youngsters to hook whole new generations of smokers." - a palavra "to" indica
- 2. FGVPetrobras approves first offshore heavy oil development Petrobras has approved the development project for its Siri field in the Campos basin, according to a news report from Brazil. The field will be the first in the world ________ extra heavy oil from an offshore site. Siri field, off the coast of Southeast Brazil, _________ in production tests since March and the company plans to contract production equipment in 2011. www.ogfj.com Assinale a alternativa que completa, correta e respectivamente, a primeira lacuna no texto.
- 3. UFRGS 2007Mr. Eugene Foster lives with his wife in a large house in New York City, and they 1have four servants. On this particular morning, there is a great deal of bustling about. One maid is distributing dust sheets to every room, while another 2is draping them over the furniture. The butler is bringing down suitcases, and Mrs. Foster herself is flying from room to room and pretending to supervise these operations. Actually, she is thinking of nothing at all except that she is going to miss her plane if her husband doesn't come out of his study soon and get ready. Mr. Foster may possibly have a right to be irritated with his wife's foolishness, but he can have no excuse for increasing her misery by .......... her waiting 4unnecessarily. It is by no means certain that this is what he 3does, yet whenever they go somewhere, his timing is so accurate and his manner so bland that it is hard to believe he isn't purposely inflicting a nasty torture of his own on the 5unhappy lady. And one thing he must know - that she would never dare to call out and tell him .......... . He disciplined her too well for that. He must also know that if he is prepared to wait even beyond the last moment of safety, he can 6drive her nearly into hysterics. It seems almost as though he 'wanted' to miss the plane simply to intensify the poor woman's suffering. (Adapted from: DAHL, Roald. The way up to heaven. In: Tales of the unexpected. London: Penguin Book, 1979. p. 179-180.) Assinale a alternativa que completa correta e respectivamente as lacunas do texto.
- 4. PUC-RS 2006We wanted to feature new work by older as well as younger writers, believing that many authors improve with age and experience. (...) Their work was selected for its energy, insight and skill, and for the excitement it generated in us - in the same way as the work of younger writers excited us. We're happy to have had a broader 1brief: to highlight new 3writing in English by writers of all ages and nationalities. It was no great surprise to discover, when we arrived at the final selection, that half the best pieces were written by women. 6Since gender 2in no way influenced selection, it's almost embarrassing to mention this. But in a literary world where shortlists for literary prizes regularly feature twice as many men as women, and where poetry anthologies 4including half a dozen women out of fifty contributors aren't yet a distant memory, this selection is 5glowing evidence of the equal talents of today's female and male writers. Source: ADEBAYO, D., MORRISON, B.; ROGERS, J. (2003) New Writing The terms "writing" (ref. 3), "including" (ref. 4) and "glowing" (ref. 5) are used, respectively, as a/an
- 5. UFRGS 2008One of the 6best ways to build a sense of 8trust and9 responsibility in 14people is by 10sharing information. Giving team members the information 13they need 19enables them to make 4good business decisions. Sharing information sometimes means 1__________ information that is considered privileged, including sensitive and important topics such as the competition's activities, future business plans and strategies, financial data, industry issues or problem areas, competitor's best practices, the way the group activities 2__________ to organizational goals, and 11performance feedback. 16Providing people with 7more complete information communicates trust and a sense of "we're in this together". 15It helps people think more broadly about the organization and the inter-relationships of various groups, 12resources and goals. By 3__________ access to information that helps 17them understand 20the big picture, 18people can 5better appreciate how their contribution fits in and how their behavior impacts other aspects of the organization. Adapted from: BLANCHARD, Ken. Leading at a higher level. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. p. 72 Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas das referências 1, 2 e 3, nessa ordem.
- 6. UFRGS 2007Most tourists in Rio spend most of their time downtown or in the city's "Zona Sul", or southern zone, where the "Rua dos Oitis" is located. But in the 50 weeks of the year not devoted to "Carnaval" or New Year's Eve, it can be easy to 1miss the party. It takes some guidance to develop the sense of where the "Cariocas" will be exercising their native "joie de vivre". A working knowledge of Portuguese is an easy in, but even lacking that, with a little advance work and a few English-speaking Brazilian contacts you can get involved .......... the action and have an idea of the real scene. I received my initial orientation at home in New York, from acquaintances and friends of friends. Many Brazilians, gregarious by nature, are happy enough to help steer a traveler, especially if they think they may be coming north sometime to collect .......... a return of the favor. 3Local advice is also comforting, of course, given Rio's reputation for crime. 4While the danger does not seem to 2dampen 5anyone's partying spirit, violence is much feared and the threat is much discussed .......... the locals. Frequent travelers to Rio may share 6tips too. Before and after its peak travel season, the city attracts a number of regular visitors seduced by the charm of the Brazilians and the culture of their proudest city. These repeaters readily brave long flights, like the 12-hour trip from New York with not a single nonstop to be found. (Adapted from: KUGEL, Seth. The New York Times, 20 Feb. 2005.) The use of -ING is the same in LOCAL ADVICE IS ALSO COMFORTING (ref. 3) and in
- 7. UEPB 2013The Art of Memory In the age before books and tablets, orators stored texts in lees reliable devices: their minds. To boost his memory capacity, Roman philosopher Cicero used tricks called mnemonics to bind his words to vivid mental images, “as if 1inscribing letters into wax.” Such ancient techniques may no longer be needed, but this month they’ll take center stage when some 50 “mental athletes” go head-to-head in the 15th USA Memory Championship in New York City. Their minds aren’t photographic, even memory experts need a 2coding system to remember strings of words, numbers, names, or 3playing cards. The key is 4training – 12 hundreds of hours of it. And speed. 5Linking items to celebrities is common practice because they’re easy to visualize. However, “an emotional tie makes the image louder” says last year’s champ. Nelson DeIlis. When creating his mnemonic cede for cards, he passed on a popular heartthrob for the king of hearts. “Brad Pitt had to think about. But my dad – I can picture him in an instant”. Oliver Uberti, National Geographic, March 2012 The group of words from text which is made up of the words “INSCRIBING” (ref. 1) “CODING” (ref. 2), “PLAYING” (ref. 3), “TRAINING” (ref. 4) and “LINKING” (ref. 5) includes
- 8. UFAL 2008"SHE HAS SHOWN SHE IS NOT AFRAID" She has mended fences abroad, but is frustrated at home. A pastor's daughter growing in communist East Germany, Angela Merkel was trained as a physicist, who concentrated on her science to the exclusion of all other pursuits. But Merkel, Germany's first female chancellor, has emerged as the most important leader in Europe, and enjoys the highest popularity rating of any German leader in postwar history. A lackluster campaigner, Merkel barely scraped into office two years ago, after forging an uneasy coalition linking her Christian Democrats with their ideological rivals, the Social Democrats. Since taking office, she has been actively engaged in framing a new global agenda, from climate change and energy security to sustaining 4,000 peacekeeping troops in Afghanistan - which for Germany would have been unthinkable just a decade ago. Merkel has shown she is not afraid to defy conventional wisdom and her willingness to resist pressures from media and business has bolstered her standing with the voters. But Merkel's most serious challenges still lie ahead of her. She has achieved record approval ratings on the strength of her foreign policy, but with economic growth slowing and workers stepping up demands for higher wages, political pressures are mounting within Merkel's coalition to backtrack on the cuts in retirement benefits and other austerity measures that propelled the recent recovery. And while her coalition has responded to the country's plunging birthrate and aging population by extending the retirement age to 67, Merkel has been frustrated in her efforts to carry out a wider restructuring of the German economy. (Adapted from She Has Shown She Is Not Afraid, Statesmanship, Newsweek/October 29, 2007, page 19.) In the last sentence of the text, the -ing words "plunging", "aging", "extending", and "restructuring" function, consecutively, as
- 9. UFRGS 2007Mr. Eugene Foster lives with his wife in a large house in New York City, and they have four servants. On this particular morning, it’s very busy. One maid is distributing dust sheets to every room, while another is decorating them over the furniture. The butler is bringing down suitcases, and Mrs. Foster herself is going from room to room and pretending to supervise these operations. Actually, she is thinking of nothing at all except that she is going to miss her plane if her husband doesn't come out of his office soon and get ready. Mr. Foster perhaps has a right to be irritated with his wife, but he can have no excuse for increasing her misery by ______ her waiting unnecessarily. This is what he does, whenever they go somewhere, his timing is so accurate that it is hard to believe he isn't purposely causing torture of his unhappy lady. And one thing he must know - that she would never dare to call out and tell him ______ up. He disciplined her too well for that. He must also know that if he is prepared to wait even beyond the last moment of safety, he can drive her nearly into panic. It seems almost as though he 'wanted' to miss the plane simply to intensify the poor woman's suffering. (Adapted from: DAHL, Roald. The way up to heaven. In: Tales of the unexpected. London: Penguin Book, 1979. p. 179-180.) Assinale a alternativa que completa correta e respectivamente as lacunas do texto.
- 10. UNESP 2006How do terrorist organizations use the internet? The internet is an increasingly useful tool for terrorists, whose online activities include information-sharing, propaganda, and possibly, cyber terrorism. Over the last ten years, the number of terrorist sites has jumped from less than 100 to as many as 4,000. "This has particularly taken off since the war in Iraq, as many of the insurgency groups there have many sites and message boards to help their network", says SITE Institute, a Washington DC-based terrorist-tracking group. "The greatest advantage [of the internet] is stealth", says John Arquilla, professor of defense analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School. "[Terrorists] swim in an ocean of bits and bytes". But the same anonymity that draws terrorists into the cyber world may also enable law-enforcement officials to spy on them undetected. (...) Today, terrorists give orders, plan attacks, and even send funds via online message boards and chat rooms. Terrorist sites also serve as virtual training grounds, offering tutorials on making bombs, firing surface-to-air missiles, shooting at U.S. soldiers, and sneaking into Iraq from abroad. The internet also provides a venue for terrorists to disseminate their message, experts say. Terrorist sites broadcast propaganda videos designed to boost morale, raise funds, or recruit new members. (...) There is some debate within the counterterrorism community about how to combat terrorist sites. Some experts say monitoring websites can provide valuable information about terrorist activities. "You can see who's posting what and who's paying for it", one expert says. (...) Other experts advocate a more aggressive approach; they say shutting down websites, even temporarily, can disrupt a terrorist group's activities. The United States have tried to prosecute webmasters who run terrorist websites in the West, but has run into opposition from free speech advocates. "Sites that tell the terrorist side of the story go right up to the brink of civil liberties", Arquilla says. Disponível em: http://cfrterrorism.org/home. Indique a alternativa que preenche corretamente a sentença: Although it is possible to identify who ............... a website, it is impossible to avoid .................... some ethical consequences of disclosing anonymity.
- 11. UNESP 1995Assinale a alternativa que preenche a lacuna da frase a seguir corretamente: He will ________ almost everything you ask him.
- 12. UNESP 1993Assinale a alternativa correta. I expect that she __________ arrive at about midnight.
- 13. UFRGS 2005Complete the sentence below with the best alternative. In the past, English cavaliers ________ swords while ________ on the left.
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