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Exercícios de Phrasal Verbs

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  1. 1. Stoodi
    O objetivo desta atividade é apresenta-lo a uma lista de phrasal verbs mais comuns. Lembre-se que o ideal é aumentar o seu ritmo de leituras, para que encontre estas expressões aplicadas em contexto.  Os phrasal verbs cut down, do over, get along e get on significam, respectivamente:
  2. 2. Stoodi
    O objetivo desta atividade é apresenta-lo a uma lista de phrasal verbs mais comuns. Lembre-se que o ideal é aumentar o seu ritmo de leituras, para que encontre estas expressões aplicadas em contexto.  Os prhasal verbs give up, go on, hand in e keep up significam, respectivamente:
  3. 3. Stoodi
    O objetivo desta atividade é apresenta-lo a uma lista de phrasal verbs mais comuns. Lembre-se que o ideal é aumentar o seu ritmo de leituras, para que encontre estas expressões aplicadas em contexto.  Os phrasal verbs blow out, call off, catch up e cheer up significam, respectivamente: 
  4. 4. Stoodi
    O objetivo desta atividade é apresenta-lo a uma lista de phrasal verbs mais comuns. Lembre-se que o ideal é aumentar o seu ritmo de leituras, para que encontre estas expressões aplicadas em contexto.  Os phrasal verbs put up with, run into, set up e take over significam, respectivamente:
  5. 5. Stoodi
    O objetivo desta atividade é apresenta-lo a uma lista de phrasal verbs mais comuns. Lembre-se que o ideal é aumentar o seu ritmo de leituras, para que encontre estas expressões aplicadas em contexto.  Os phrasal verbs look after, make up, make up for e put off significam, respectivamente:
  6. 6. UPE 2013
    […] Oh the cell phone! Everyone knows how important personal cell phones have become to teens. 3In fact, TeenFrontier.com reports that 25% of cell phone 4revenues come from teens. 2As important as your cell phone is, summer job etiquette demands that teenagers take steps to curb the use of personal cell phones in the workspace. To be considered a professional working teen at a summer job, 1keep cell phones off, avoid texting and keep earpieces out of sight while working. […] DIAS, Reinildes; JUCÁ, Leina; FARIA, Raquel. Prime: inglês para o ensino médio. São Paulo: Macmillan, 2010. (Adaptado.)   Em relação aos recursos linguísticos utilizados no texto, pode-se afirmar que   I. Keep... off (ref. 1) é um phrasal verb e significa ‘manter distância’. II. Em “As important as your cell fone is...” (ref. 2), há uma comparação de superioridade implícita. III. In fact (ref. 3) é um marcador do discurso e indica uma reformulação. IV. O vocábulo revenues (ref. 4) é um termo cognato. V. O trecho “keep cell phones off, avoid texting and keep earpieces out of sight while working.” (ref. 1) expressa um conselho.   Estão CORRETAS
  7. 7. PUC-RJ 2014
    Driverless automobiles - The car that parks itself CARS that need no driver are just around the corner according to researchers who have been testing vehicles bristling with aerials and cameras on public roads in America. However, researchers do not make cars, so it will be up to firms that do to bring the technology to market. And carmakers are a conservative bunch. Still, slowly and steadily the autonomous car will arrive, with the help of an increasing number of automated driving aids. A Swedish carmaker has recently demonstrated one such feature: a car that really does park itself.   Some cars already have systems that assist with parking, but these are not completely autonomous. They can identify an empty parallel-parking space and steer into it while the driver uses the brake. The Swedish system, however, lets the driver get out and use a smartphone application to instruct the vehicle to park. The car then 1trundles off, manoeuvres into a parking place and sends a message to the driver to inform him where it is. The driver can collect the car in person or use his phone to call it back to where he dropped it off. Autonomous parking could thus be provided at places like shopping centers and airports, which are controlled areas in which automated vehicles can be managed more easily than on open highways.  In the past, designs for doing this have relied on car parks being fitted with buried guide wires that a vehicle can follow to an empty bay. That, though, creates 2a chicken-and-egg problem: car-park operators will not invest in such infrastructure until there is a sufficient number of suitably equipped cars on the road. Drivers, conversely, will not want to buy self-parking cars if there is nowhere to use them.   This means, as a safety engineer working on the project observes, that for autonomous parking to work most of the technology will have to be in the car itself. The test car, which looks like a normal car, therefore uses on-board GPS mapping, cameras with image-recognition software, and radar sensors to find its own way around a car park and avoid pedestrians and non-autonomous vehicles. The same engineer says the system is five to ten years from commercial deployment. If it proves a success then infrastructure might adapt to it, for instance by packing cars into tighter spaces. If there is no one in them there is no need to make room for their doors to open.   Driverless cars would also need to communicate with one another, to enhance safety. That, too, is coming. 3A number of carmakers are developing wireless networking systems through which vehicles can exchange data, such as their speed, their steering angle and even their weight, to forewarn anti-collision systems and safety devices if an accident looks likely.   In the USA, for example, a carmaker recently tested a brake light that can provide an early warning to other motorists. If the brakes are applied hard in an emergency, a signal is broadcast. This illuminates a warning light in the dashboard of suitably equipped following vehicles, even if they are out of sight around a bend or not immediately behind the vehicle doing the braking.   The American company has been testing this system as part of a collaborative research project with several European carmakers. 4They have put a fleet of 150 experimental vehicles on the roads. When they tested a group of these, the Americans found the technology let drivers brake much earlier, helping avoid collisions. A driverless car would be able to react even faster.   Another member of the research group has been testing driverless cars on roads around Munich— including belting down some of Germany’s high-speed autobahns. 5The ordinary-looking models use a variety of self-contained guidance systems. These include cameras mounted on the upper windscreen, which can identify road markings, signs and various obstacles likely to be encountered on roads.   The German cars also use a radar, to gauge how far the vehicle is from other cars and potential obstacles, and a lidar, which works like a radar but at optical frequencies. The lidar employs laser beams to scan the road ahead and builds up from the reflections a three-dimensional image of what this looks like. The image is processed by a computer in the vehicle, which also collects and compares data from a high-accuracy GPS unit. A series of ultrasonic sonars similar to those used in vehicles to provide parking assistance are placed around the car to add to the virtual picture. And just to make sure, a set of accelerometers provide an inertial navigation system that double-checks the vehicle’s position on the road.   6Although these cars can be switched to an autonomous driving mode, they are still required to have someone in the driving seat who can take over in the event of any difficulty. Some cars can steer themselves, slow down, brake and accelerate, even changing lanes to overtake slower vehicles. From the print edition: Science and Technology Jun 29th 2013   The author uses the phrasal verb “trundles off” (ref. 1) that could be replaced by
  8. 8. UDESC 2012
    2012’s Second Sun Earth is believed to be getting a second sun burning in the sky near the end of 2012, as the second biggest star in the universe, Betelgeuse, is dying, which will lead to “multiple days of constant daylight.”   Many ancient cultures 4have speculated about the appearance of a second sun and this event appears to 1tie in very closely with the December 21 2012 predictions.   Betelgeuse is the second 2biggest star in the universe and the eighth 3brightest in the night sky, Scientists 5have determined that the star is losing mass at a rapid rate, which indicates it will go supernova very soon.   The light emitted from this exploding star will be so bright that it will appear for a few weeks at the end of 2012 as a second sun in the sky. There may be little if no period of darkness or night according to senior lecturer of physics at the University of Southern Queensland, Brad Carter.   Earth will experience “brightness for a brief period of time for a couple of weeks and then over the coming months it begins to fade and then eventually it will be very hard to see at all,” explained the Australian scientist Brad Carter to news.com.au.   Scientist 6have known about this dying star which is 640 light years away from Earth, since 2005. It is believed that as Betelgeuse goes supernova it will not be harmful to Earth. “There will be neutrinos emitted during the supernova process, said University of Minnesota physics professor Priscilla Cushman, but neutrinos, even lots and lots of them, are only weakly interacting, so they won't affect life on earth,” but that is only speculation at this point.   The fact is, we as human beings have never experienced anything like this before so close to our home planet, and to be honest, we just don’t know for sure what this event could bring. (www.december212012.com) on 30/08/11   Mark the correct alternative. The phrasal verb “tie in” means:
  9. 9. ACAFE 2015
    Brazil cotton deal perpetuates an unhealthy status quo of subsidies When is a victory for the United States not a victory for the American taxpayer? When it’s an international agreement like the one the Obama administration has just reached to settle a long-running dispute with Brazil over cotton subsidies. The roots of that dispute 1lie in this country’s history of showering federal funds on crop producers, including cotton growers. That particular business received  from Washington between 1995 and 2012, according to the Environmental Working Group, largely through programs that had the effect of rewarding farmers for increasing production. The extra supply dampened prices on the world market, so, in 2002, Brazil complained to the World Trade Organization, which ruled that US cotton subsidies were indeed “trade-distorting” and authorized Brazil to retaliate against US exports. The United States avoided sanctions — not by reforming its programs but by agreeing in 2010 to pay Brazil’s cotton farmers 147.3 million per year.   In short, the US government bought off Brazil’s cotton farmers so that it could 2keep on buying off its own. Under the new settlement, announced Wednesday, Brazil agreed to drop its case at the WTO and to 3forgo any new ones during the five-year term of the farm bill Congress enacted last year. In return, the United States agreed to trim the modest US cotton export credit subsidy program and, most important, to pay Brazil one last dollop of taxpayer cash, in the amount of 300 million.   This is good news to the extent that it fortifies US-Brazil relations on the eve of a new presidential term in that country and that it spares US exporters from the threat of Brazilian retaliation, which could have reached a total of  per year. Yet, in essence, the new deal perpetuates the unhealthy status quo whereby the United States pays Brazil ____ the right ____ continue propping _____ a domestic cotton industry that can ____ should learn to compete ____ its own.   Published by The Washington Post (The text below has been slightly modified to better suit the exam)   What does buy off mean as used in the text?
  10. 10. UEPA 2012
    Dear Readers, Were you bullied at school today? Did you see someone else being bullied? According to a 2005 study by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles, nearly one half of middle-school students reported being bullied at least once during five school days. Even more kids had seen others being bullied. Bullying is harmful not only to the kids that are bullied, but to every kid in school. Hitting, teasing, name-calling and other forms of bullying create an atmosphere of fear and dread. Every kid wonders, Will I be bullied next? At TIME For Kids, we want every kid to feel comfortable, safe and confident at school, so everyone can focus on learning and growing. That’s why we are so proud that the Department of Health and Human Services has sponsored this supplement “Stop Bullying Now!” This is the first of three issues you will receive this year presenting bullying scenarios and showing you ways to cope with them. Share this comic book, and the two that follow, with your family and friends. Bullying behavior has probably been around for as long as human beings have walked the earth. We hope to give kids the tools they need to react appropriately to bullying situations. Bullying should not be rewarded or tolerated.   Sincerely yours,   Martha Pickerill Managing Editor, TIME For Kids (Fonte: adaptado de http://www.edpubs.gov/document/ed005149p.pdf?ck=308; acesso em 06.09.2011)   A expressão “cope with” indica a ideia de: a
  11. 11. PUC-RJ 2008
    THE LEGEND OF THE CRYSTAL SKULLS The truth behind Indiana Jones's latest quest Jane MacLaren Walsh*   Sixteen years ago, a heavy package addressed to the nonexistent "Smithsonian Institution Curator, Mesoamerican Museum, Washington, D.C." was delivered to the National Museum of American History. It was accompanied by an unsigned letter stating: "This Aztec crystal skull, purported to be part of the Porfirio Díaz 3collection, was purchased in Mexico in 1960. I am offering 2it to the Smithsonian without consideration." Richard Ahlborn, then curator of the Hispanic-American collections, knew of my expertise in Mexican archaeology and called me to ask whether I knew anything about the object - an eerie, milky white crystal skull 14considerably larger than a human head.   I told him I knew of a life-sized crystal skull on display at the British Museum, and had seen a smaller version the Smithsonian had 15once exhibited as a fake. After we spent a few minutes puzzling over the meaning and significance of this unusual artifact, he asked whether the department of anthropology would be interested in accepting it for the national collections. I said yes without hesitation. 1If the skull turned out to be a genuine pre-Columbian Mesoamerican artifact, 13such a rare object should definitely become part of the national collections.   I couldn't have imagined then that this 16unsolicited donation would open an entirely new avenue of research for me. In the years since the package arrived, my investigation of this single skull has led me to research the history of pre-Columbian collections in museums around the world, and I have collaborated with a 17broad range of international scientists and museum curators who have also crossed paths with crystal skulls. Studying these artifacts has prompted new research into pre-Columbian lapidary (or stone working) technology, particularly the carving of hard stones like jadeite and quartz.   Crystal skulls have undergone serious scholarly scrutiny, but they also excite the popular imagination because they seem so mysterious. Theories about their origins abound. Some believe the skulls are the handiwork of the 5Maya or Aztecs, but 4they have also become the subject of constant discussion on occult websites. Some insist that they originated on a sunken continent or in a far-away galaxy. And now they are poised to become archaeological superstars thanks to our celluloid colleague Indiana Jones, who will tackle the subject of our research in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Details about the movie's plot are being closely guarded by the film's producers as I write this, but the Internet rumor mill has it that the crystal skull of the title is the creation of aliens.   Although nearly all of the crystal skulls have at times been identified as Aztec, Toltec, Mixtec, or occasionally Maya, they do not reflect the artistic or stylistic characteristics of any of these cultures. [...] I believe that all of the smaller crystal skulls that constitute the first generation of fakes were made in Mexico around the time they were sold, between 1856 and 1880. [...]   British Museum scientist Margaret Sax and I examined the British Museum and Smithsonian 7skulls under light and scanning electron microscope and conclusively determined that they were carved with relatively modern lapidary equipment, 6which were unavailable to pre-Columbian Mesoamerican carvers. So why have crystal 9skulls had such a long and successful run, and why do some museums continue to exhibit 8them, despite their 18lack of archaeological context and obvious iconographic, stylistic, and technical problems? 12Though the British Museum exhibits its skulls as examples of 11fakes, 10others still offer them up as the genuine article. Mexico's national museum, for example, identifies its skulls as the work of Aztec and Mixtec artisans. Perhaps it is because, like the Indiana Jones movies, these macabre objects are reliable crowd-pleasers. [...] From: Archaeology. Volume 61, Number 3, May/June 2008 *Jane MacLaren Walsh is an anthropologist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.   In "If the skull turned out to be a genuine pre-Columbian artifact" (ref. 1), "turned out" could be replaced by
  12. 12. UFMG 2004
    Dispatches from the Vanishing World 50 acres of tropical rainforest are said to be disappearing every minute. Millions of species of animals and plants around the world are going extinct at an ever-accelerating rate, many of them before they can even be identified or their existence is even known. (This particularly unfortunate type of extinction is known as Sentinelan extinction.) 2000 of the world's 6000 remaining languages have less than 12 speakers and will be lost within this generation. The world's cultural and biological diversity is under assault as never before in recorded history. What is the cause of the greatest extinction event in the last ten thousand years? Not a meteor strike or a volcanic eruption, or the advance or retraction of an ice sheet, but our very success as a species. Human population growth and the spread of modern culture are 1doing in the planet. Rapidly multiplying local people need land and its resources - wood for fuel, water, wild animals to eat, gold and diamonds and other minerals for income.   Dispatches from the Vanishing World is a forum for documenting and raising consciousness about the world's fast-disappearing biological and cultural diversity. It provides first-hand, in-depth reporting from the last relatively pristine places on earth, identifies who and what is destroying them, and who is engaged in the heroic and often life-threatening struggle to save them. It provides foundations involved in environmental or cultural preservation with two services: 1) a full, independent assessment of their program or cause, and 2) publicity by adapting the assessment for publication in one of the top American magazines or as a book.   This is a reader's website. The Dispatches will be long and thorough, because often these places where species and/or cultures are down to the wire are remote and hard to get to and dangerous to move around in, and this may be the only detailed treatment they get. http://www.dispatchesfromthevanishingworld.com/index.html   The expression "doing in" (ref. 1) means
  13. 13. PUC-RS 2003
    Looking at today's dictionaries Change is not something that people tend to associate with dictionaries. Changing these highly labor-intensive products is not to be undertaken lightly. The heavy cost of dictionary production, and the penalty to be paid for errors of judgement, have made it almost impossible for any radically new dictionary to 1come into being. Of 2course our dictionaries of the present do look a little different from their predecessors, and do behave a little better (it is becoming rarer now to find dictionaries with 3hermetically sealed nuggets of information coded up to defy interpretation by all but the dogged few); they may even come to you on a CD-ROM rather than in book form, but underneath these superficial modernizations lurks the same old dictionary. Some of the more innovative may introduce a few new types of information, but when it comes to setting out the meanings of words, giving them definitions or equivalents in another language, including examples, idioms, pronunciations, usage notes, cross reference and the 4score or so of other kinds of information, 5tradition rules supreme. ATKINS, B.T.S.,Bilingual Dictionaries Past, Present and Future. 2002.   "come into being" (ref. 1) means to
  14. 14. CESGRANRIO 2011
    Experts Try to Gauge Health Effects of Gulf Oil Spill   WEDNESDAY, June 23, 2010 (HealthDay News) -- This Tuesday and Wednesday, a high-ranking group of expert government advisors is meeting to outline and anticipate potential health risks from the Gulf oil spill -- and find ways to minimize them. The workshop, convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) at the request of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, will not issue any formal recommendations, but is intended to spur debate on the ongoing spill. "We know that there are several contaminations. We know that there are several groups of people -- workers, volunteers, people living in the area," said Dr. Maureen Lichtveld, a panel member and professor and chair of the department of environmental health sciences at Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans. "We're going to discuss what the opportunities are for exposure and what the potential short- and long-term health effects are. That's the essence of the workshop, to look at what we know and what are the gaps in science," Lichtveld explained. "The important point is that we are convening, that we are convening so quickly and that we're convening locally," she added. The meeting, being held on Day 64 and Day 65 of the still-unfolding disaster, is taking place in New Orleans and will also include community members. High on the agenda: discussions of who is most at risk from the oil spill, which started when BP's Deepwater Horizon rig exploded and sank in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, killing 11 workers. The spill has already greatly outdistanced the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in magnitude. "Volunteers will be at the highest risk," one panel member, Paul Lioy of the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey and Rutgers University, stated at the conference. He was referring largely to the 17,000 U.S. National Guard members who are being deployed to help with the clean-up effort. Many lack extensive training in the types of hazards -- chemical and otherwise -- that they'll be facing, he said. That might even include the poisonous snakes that inhabit coastal swamps, Lioy noted. Many National Guard members are "not professionally trained. They may be lawyers, accountants, your next-door neighbor," he pointed out. Seamen and rescue workers, residents living in close proximity to the disaster, people eating fish and seafood, tourists and beach-goers will also face some risk going forward, Dr. Nalini Sathiakumar, an occupational epidemiologist and pediatrician at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, added during the conference. Many of the ailments, including nausea, headache and dizziness, are already evident, especially in clean-up workers, some of whom have had to be hospitalized. "Petroleum has inherent hazards and I would say the people at greatest risk are the ones actively working in the region right now," added Dr. Jeff Kalina, associate medical director of the emergency department at The Methodist Hospital in Houston. "If petroleum gets into the lungs it can cause quite a bit of damage to the lungs [including] pneumonitis, or inflammation of the lungs." "There are concerns for workers near the source. They do have protective equipment on but do they need respirators?" added Robert Emery, vice president for safety, health, environment and risk management at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.   Physical contact with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and with solvents can cause skin problems as well as eye irritation, said Sathiakumar, who noted that VOCs can also cause neurological symptoms such as confusion and weakness of the extremities.   The experts added ergonomic hazards, high noise levels, heat stress and everyday physical injuries to the list.   Going forward, many other risks will fall into the category of "unknown."   "Some of the risks are quite apparent and some we don't know about yet," said Kalina. "We don't know what's going to happen six months or a year from now." Disponível em: https://consumer.healthday.com/environmental-health-information-12/environmental-medicine-news-234/experts-try-to-gauge-health-effects-of-gulf-oil-spill-640425.html   In the fragments to look at what we know and what are the gaps in science, and They may be lawyers, accountants, your next-door neighbor, he pointed out, the expressions look at and pointed out mean, respectively,  
  15. 15. FCC 2010
    Security: UAC Gets Tolerable   Let's talk about User Account Control ? the Windows Vista security element that was a prominent example for everything that bothered people about that OS. UAC aimed to prevent rogue software from tampering with your PC by endlessly prompting you to approve running applications or changing settings. The experience was so grating that many users preferred to turn UAC [PARTICLE] and [VERB] their chances with Internet attackers. Those who left it active risked slipping into the habit of incautiously clicking through every prompt, defeating whatever value the feature might have had.   Whereas Vista's notorious User Account Control gave users no control over the feature other than to turn it off, Windows 7's version of UAC lets users choose from two intermediate notification levels between 'Always notify' and 'Never notify'.   Windows 7 gives you control over UAC, in the form ofa slider containing four security settings. As before, you can accept the full-blown UAC or elect to disable it. But you can also tell UAC to notify you only when software changes Windows settings, not when you're tweaking them yourself. And you can instruct it not to perform the abrupt screen-dimming effect that Vista's version uses to grab your attention.   If Microsoft had its druthers, all Windows 7 users [TO USE] UAC in full-tilt mode: The slider that you use to ratchet back its severity advises you not to do so if you routinely install new software or visit unfamiliar sites, and it warns that disabling the dimming effect is "Not recommended.", Redmond: I have every intention of recommending the intermediate settings to most people who ask me for advice, since those settings retain most of UAC's theoretical value without driving users bonkers. (Adapted from: http://www.pcworld.com/article/172602/windows_7_review.html)   A palavra que substitui corretamente a lacuna [PARTICLE] é
  16. 16. CESGRANRIO 2011
    Don't spend all your time at the office. Take a break. Updated 4/6/2011 9:40 PM | Comment  | Recommend By Kim Painter, USA TODAY Remember the lunch hour? In a more relaxed, less plugged-in era, office workers would rise up midday to eat food at tables, gossip with co-workers, enjoy a book on a park bench or take a walk in the sun. Can it still be done, without invoking the scorn of desk-bound colleagues or enduring constant electronic interruptions? It can and should. Here are five ways to break free:   1. Give yourself permission. As the hair-color ads say, "You're worth it." But taking a break in the workday is more than an indulgence: It's a way of taking care of your body and mind, says Laura Stack, a time-management expert and author who blogs at theproductivitypro.com. "You have to eliminate the guilt and remind yourself that the more you take care of yourself, the better you are able to take care of others," she says. "We have to recharge our batteries. We have to refresh. It's OK."   2. Get a posse. "So many people are wishing they could just peel themselves away, but they don't have the discipline," Stack says. So invite a co-worker to take daily walks with you or a group to gather for Friday lunches. Pretty soon, you'll be working in a happier place (and feeling less like a shirker and more like a leader).   3. Schedule it. Put it on your calendar and on any electronic schedule visible to co-workers. "Code yourself as 'unavailable.' Nobody has to know why," says Laura Vanderkam, author of 168 Hours: You Have More Time Than You Think. And, if a daily hour of "me time" seems impossible right now, commit to just one or two big breaks a week. Or schedule several 15-minute leg-stretching, mind-freeing breaks each day. Keep those appointments, and spend them in "a cone of silence," without electronic devices, Vanderkam says.   4. Apply deadline pressure. The promise of a lunch break could make for a more productive morning: "Treat it as a deadline or a game," Stack says. Pick a meaty task or two that must be finished before lunch and dive in. Plan what you'll finish in the afternoon, too. That will free your mind to enjoy the break, Vanderkam says.   5. Eat at your desk. That's right: If you can't beat them, seem to join them. If you really don't care about eating elsewhere, "pack your lunch and eat it at your desk, and save the time for something you'd rather do," whether it's going to the gym or sneaking out to your car to read, Vanderkam says. (But remember, you still have to schedule this break.) While most co-workers care less about your habits than you think they do, she says, "this has the extra advantage that you can be seen eating at your desk." Disponível em: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/yourlife/health/2011-04-07-fiveways07_ST_N.htm   In the excerpts “The promise of a lunch break could make for a more productive morning:” and “whether its going to the gym or sneaking out to your car to read”, the verb phrases make for and sneaking out to mean, respectively
  17. 17. UEAP 2013
    Obama Criticizes Congress on Housing Market U.S. President Barack Obama has called out the Congress, especially Republicans, for not acting on proposals aimed at saving homeowners thousands of dollars. During Saturday’s weekly address, Obama said Congress has delayed taking action on a plan he sent them in February that he says would save homeowners $3,000 a year by refinancing their mortgages at a lower interest rate. [...] President Obama and Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney face off Wednesday in the first of three debates ahead of elections on November 6. Voa News, September 29, 2012. (adapted) http://www.voanews.com/content/obama_criticizes_congress_on_housing_market/1517245.html No último parágrafo, o verbo frasal “face off” pode ser substituído, sem prejuízo semântico do contexto, por
  18. 18. ITA 2013
    Reboot the School   SALMAN KHAN’S YOUTUBE LESSONS HAVE ALREADY MADE HIM A GEEK CELEBRITY. NOW HE WANTS TO REINVENT HOMEWORK, BANISH CLASSROOM LECTURES—AND MAYBE SAVE EDUCATION.   By Kayla Webley   Fifth-graders at Eastside College Preparatory School in East Palo Alto, Calif., sit at their desks with netbooks. They're in the middle of a math lesson, listening as a teacher explains how to convert percentages to decimals. "If we get rid of the percent sign, we just have to move the decimal sign two places to the left," the instructor says. Pens scribble across notebooks.   Eleven thousand miles away in Accra, Ghana, students at the African School for Excellence are studying logarithms. Their teacher is the same one firing off math tips in California–both groups of kids are learning by watching online videos. While the screen shows a march of equations and diagrams, the students never actually see the face of the lecturer. There's just a voice, deep, patient and unrehearsed—think NPR host crossed with Mister Rogers. His inflection rises at times to underscore a point or when he gets really excited. "Math is not just random things to memorize and regurgitate on a test next week," he says. "It's the purest way of describing the universe!"   The voice belongs to Salman Khan, a 35-year-old hedge-fund manager turned YouTube professor to millions around the world. Thanks to his Khan Academy, an online repository of some 3,250 digital lectures, he has become a celebrity to techies, educators and uncounted high schoolers cramming for the AP biology test. His 18-minute discourse on the Krebs cycle and cell metabolism has been viewed more than 675,000 times.   But Khan isn't satisfied with being the most famous teacher ever to appear on a Web browser. He believes he has stumbled onto a solution to some of education's most intractable problems, with his video-driven teaching method at its heart. He wants to fundamentally change the role of teachers in the classroom—and redefine the concept of homework along the way. And he has persuaded Bill Gates, Google's Eric Schmidt and a minor constellation of other tech billionaires to back this quest.   Education reform is notoriously difficult. K-12 schools are debating everything from teacher evaluations to standardized tests, with no consensus in sight. Universities, meanwhile, are confronting massive budget cuts and new kinds of competition—as dramatized by the recent turmoil at the University of Virginia. Its board fired the president amid worries that UVa wasn't keeping up with change and embracing online education fast enough, then rehired her 16 days later after a backlash from students and faculty.   At all levels, there's plenty of skepticism about any tech-centric approach to teaching. An estimated $65.7 billion was spent in the U.S. last year on education technology, according to research firm Gartner. But many educators say there is little concrete proof of its benefits.   Khan is already butting up against veteran teachers nervous about their roles in his brave new classroom. But the biggest obstacle of all may be Khan himself. For all his grassroots fandom and Silicon Valley cred, he's not an educator, and he's never worked with children. Are parents and teachers ready to upend hundreds of years of precedent about how basic subjects are taught on the word of a guy who has spent more time analyzing financial statements than standing before a blackboard? Fonte: Time, July 9, 2012. Texto adaptado.   Na sentença em que se insere “He believes he has stumbled onto a solution to some of education’s most intractable problems” (linhas 18 e 19), o verbo “stumbled onto” pode ser substituído por
  19. 19. UFRR 2016
    Read the following passage and answer the question   Roraima is an interesting mountain located in the Guiana Highlands. The peak actually shares the border with Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana, but the mountain is almost always approached from the Venezuela side. The Brazil and Guyana sides are much more difficult. The mountain's highest point is Maverick Rock which is at and on the Venezuela side. http://www.summitpost.org/monte-roraima/151790 acess on 01/09/2015.     Replace the word in brackets in the sentence below with a suitable phrasal verb.   Because of an accident on the line between Brighton and Victoria, my train was ___________ for several hours. (delayed) 
  20. 20. UPE 2014
    PAPER, PLASTIC, OR SOMETHING BETTER?   The next time the clerk at your favorite grocery store asks whether you prefer “paper or plastic” for your purchases, consider giving the truly eco-friendly response and saying, “neither.”   Plastic bags end up as litter that fouls the landscape, and kill thousands of marine mammals every year that mistake the floating bags for food. Plastic bags that get buried in landfills may take up to 1,000 years to break down, and in the process they separate into smaller and smaller toxic particles that contaminate soil and water. Furthermore, the production of plastic bags consume millions of gallons of oil that could be used for fuel and heating.   Paper bags, which many people consider a better alternative to plastic bags, carry their own set of environmental problems. For example, according to the American Forest and Paper Association, in 1999 the U.S. alone used 10 billion paper grocery bags, which adds up to a lot of trees.   But if you decline paper and plastic bags, then how do you get your groceries home? The answer, according to many environmentalists, is high-quality reusable shopping bags made of materials that don’t harm the environment during production and don’t need to be discarded after each use.   Experts estimate that 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed and discarded annually worldwide - more than a million per minute. Disponível em: http://environment.about.com. Adaptado.   Na frase “Plastic bags that get buried in landfills may take up to 1,000 years to break down,” o verbo em destaque significa
  21. 21. PUC-RS 2008
    English sculptor Anish Kapoor, one of the greatest active artists in our time, was born in India in 1954. Having built an impressive oeuvre over the past three decades, today Kapoor stands out as a sculptor in the strictest sense of the word: he has introduced sculpture in a new aesthetic and technical scale by incorporating techniques – appropriated from architecture, aeronautics, and the heavy industry – to the support.   Anish Kapoor’s forms and sculptures are apparently deceiving; they seem quite simple in terms of form, yet they convey, each of them, a dizzying complexity of natural elements, technique, aesthetic and finishing. Brazilian poet Antonio Cicero once told me that finishing accounts for 50% of a poetic creation.   I have become deeply aware of this fact. In Kapoor’s work, it accounts for even more. For example, When I am Pregnant, is a work shrouded by a thin and fastidiously finished layer of plaster; it is a subtle protuberance on the wall, enunciating a bulging form that in itself heralds creation and the sublime. It is art, wanting to be born. (Source: Cultural Project of Banco do Brasil, 2006)   “Stand out”, as used in the first paragraph, means
  22. 22. PUC-RS 2014
    Candy Crush Saga: ‘70% of the people on the last level haven’t paid anything’ King’s games guru is Tommy Palm, on the game that’s being played 700m times a day on smartphones and tablets!   Candy Crush Saga has become a craze on Facebook, iOS and Android alike.   The key stat is right there in the headline: seven in ten people who’ve reached the last level of wildly-popular mobile game Candy Crush Saga 9haven’t spent any money on in-app purchases.   This may come as a surprise. Hardcore gamers (and a fair few developers) often attack King’s puzzler as the epitome of dreadful, money-sucking freemium gaming, exploiting people too stupid to realize they’re being exploited.   It’s gaming 1snobbery of the worst kind, and not because Candy Crush doesn’t sometimes 3feel over-aggressive in the way its difficulty curve 4nudges 5players towards in-app 6purchases – it sometimes 2does – 7but because it’s based on a view of casual gamers as little more than lab rats, tapping buy-buttons when commanded rather than seeking “proper” games elsewhere.   As a player, I 8ducked out of Candy Crush Saga when I hit my personal ceiling of fun versus payment. As a journalist, though, I feel like defending the game against its 10fiercer critics, who seem to think its players are incapable of making similar decisions. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/appsblog/2013/sep/10/ candy-crush-saga-king-interview   All the words below are related to the phrasal verb “ducked out” (ref. 8), EXCEPT  
  23. 23. UFG 2014
    Toronto wants the world to discover what our city has to offer. And how better to do that than by putting the world in touch with the people who know and love Toronto the best – the people who live here.   How does TAP into TO! work? We have lined up an array of energetic, knowledgeable volunteer Torontonians, who are ready, willing and able to show you their favourite parts of Toronto.   Tell us when you'll be visiting, when you have two to four hours of free time and what neighbourhood you would like to see.   We'll match you up with a greeter who shares your area of interest and you'll be set to go.   Please give us at least one week notice to make the match. It is also important to note that the greeter visits cannot be arranged for the first day of arrival in the city – just in case you are unavoidably delayed on your arrival. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 9 set. 2013. (Adaptado).   The phrasal verb in the title, “Tap Into TO!”, is best expressed by the phrase
  24. 24. UFRGS 2015
    The Road Not Taken   Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth;   Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same,   And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.   I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I – I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Adaptado de: FROST, Robert. The Road not Taken .  Disponível em: . Acesso em: 08 set. 2014.     A expressão wanted wear (l. 08), conforme empregada no texto, faz referência ao fato de que a estrada escolhida
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