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  1. 1. UEMG 2015
    Read the article below and answer the question that follow. Virtual people, real friends by Anna Pickard (The Guardian) The benefits of forming friendships with those we meet online are obvious, so why is the idea still treated with such disdain? Another week, another survey claiming to reveal great truths about ourselves. This one says that people are increasingly turning “online friends” into people they’d think worthy of calling real-life friends. Well, that’s stating the obvious, I would have thought! If there’s a more perfect place for making friends, I have yet to find it. However, when surveys like this are reported in the media, it’s always with a slight air of “it’s a crazy, crazy world!” And whenever the subject crops up in the conversation, it’s clear that people look down on friends like these. In fact some members of my family still refer to my partner of six years as my “Internet Boyfriend.” It’s the shocked reaction that surprises me as if people on the internet were not “real” at all. Certainly, people play a character online quite often – they may be a more confident or more argumentative version of their real selves – but what’s the alternative? Is meeting people at work so much better than making friends in a virtual world? Perhaps, but for some a professional distance between their “work” selves and their “social” selves is necessary, especially, if they tend to let their guard down and might say or do something they will later regret. Those people disapproving of online friendships argue that the concept of “friendship” is used loosely in a world driven by technology, in which you might have a thousand online friends. They make a distinction between “social connections” – 1acquaintances who are only one click away – and meaningful human interaction, which they say requires time and effort. They note that for many Facebook “friends,” conversation is a way of exchanging information quickly and efficiently rather than being a social activity. However, I’ve found that far from being the home of oddballs and potential serial killers, the internet is full of like-minded people. For the first time in history, we’re lucky to enough to choose friends not by location or luck, but by those who have similar interests and senses of humour, or passionate feelings about the same things. The friends I’ve made online might be spread wide geographically, but I’m closer to them than anyone I went to school with, by millions miles. They are the best friends I have. Obviously, there will be concerns about the dangers of online friendship. There are always stories buzzing around such as “man runs off with the woman he met on Second Life” or people who meet their “soulmate” online and are never seen again. But people are people, whether online or not. As for “real” friendship dying out, surely, is social networking simply redefining our notion of what this is in the twenty-first century? The figures – half a billion Facebook users worldwide – speak for themselves. And technology has allowed countless numbers of these people to keep in close contact with their loved ones, however far away they are. Without it, many disabled or household people might go without social contact at all. Call me naive, call me a social misfit, I don’t care. Virtual people make best real friends. Adapted from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/jan/02/internet-relationships Read the passage below to complete the gaps with the relative pronouns (1 - 4): Online friends are people _______ always post messages and pictures of the places _______ they are, _______ they are with and ______ they are doing. 1. what 2. who 3. whom 4. where The CORRECT sequence is:
  2. 2. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: The guy ____ was talking to us is very ugly!
  3. 3. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: The woman ____ answered the phone was not nice at all!
  4. 4. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: The car ____ I saw yesterday is quite expensive.
  5. 5. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: That movies, ____ lost its license, has been turned into a church.
  6. 6. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: Do you have any friend ____ can speak Italian?
  7. 7. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: The man ____ bike we bought is not from here.
  8. 8. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: That is the man _____ documents I have found.
  9. 9. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: That is the band ____ CD I bought last week.
  10. 10. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: Our new neightbours, ____ moved in last week, seem very friendly.
  11. 11. UFRGS 2015
        The study of game 13aesthetics is a very recent practice, spanning less than two 7decades. Unlike game studies in 4mathematics or the social sciences, 1_________ are much older, games became subject to humanistic study only after computer and video games became popular. This lack of persistent interest might seem 15odd, but only if we see traditional games and computer games as intrinsically similar, 2_________ 19they are not. We might try to explain this lack by noting that games are usually seen as trivial and 16lowbrow by the aesthetic and theoretical elites 3__________ cultivate the 5analysis of artistic 14media objects: literature, the visual arts, theatre, music, etc. But this does not explain the fact that aesthetic studies of games are now not only possible, but even encouraged and supported with funding. What happened to cause this change?     A possible explanation could be that digital games, unlike traditional games or sports, consist of non-ephemeral content (stored words, sounds and images), which 8places them much closer to the ideal object of the 9Humanities, the work of art. Thus, they become visible and textualizable for 29the aesthetic observer, in a way the 6previous 10phenomena were not.     However, 21this sudden visibility, probably also caused by the tremendous economic and cultural 12success of computer games, produces 26certain blind spots in the aesthetic observer, especially if 18he/she is trained in textual/visual analysis, as is usually the case. Instead of treating 22the new phenomena carefully, and as 24objects of 30a study for which no methodology yet exists, they are analyzed with tools that happen to be at hand, such as 27film or narrative theories. Therefore 28we need to outline and promote 23a methodology for 25the aesthetic study of games, 20which, 31given the current 17nascent state of the field, 32will doubtlessly give way to more sophisticated 11approaches in the years to come. Adapted from: Aarseth, Espen. Playing Research: Methodological approaches to game analysis. Available at: . Accessed on July 26th, 2014. Select the alternative that adequately fills in the blanks in references 1, 2 and 3.
  12. 12. ESPM 2015
    The trouble with trying to make trains go faster By Katia Moskvitch       As technology advances, transport gets ever faster, and trains are no exception. But with great speed come great drawbacks. Katia Moskvitch reports on the pitfalls facing train designers trying to reach even greater speed on rails.     Since George Stephenson’s Rocket, designers have been trying to make trains go faster and faster. Despite all the innovations, particularly in the last 50 years it’s still a dream that all cities around the world could be connected by high-speed trains that complete journeys in a flash, allowing you to arrive at your destination relaxed and untroubled. Why is this the case?     Going fast on rails brings its own special set of problems. Human bodies are simply not built for rapid acceleration, we experience certain low frequency motions that create discomfort – a feeling of “motion sickness”. We also experience rapid acceleration, for example, each time we take off and land in a plane.     Then there is the logistics of trying to send a train faster along a track. Going fast means pushing air out of the way, which also requires a lot of power. A train travelling at 300mph (480 km/h) uses roughly 27 times more power than one travelling at 100mph (160 km/h). And at ground level the air is a lot denser than it is at 35,000ft (10,600m) where airliners regularly cruise. That means more resistance, and therefore more vibrations.     If trains could travel just in straight lines and without any dips, then high speeds would not be a big issue. It’s the bends and the ups and downs that create a problem, especially in Europe, with its many rivers and mountains and old train lines following long-travelled routes. 14 August 2014 | www.bbc.co.uk The underlined pronoun which in the 4th paragraph of the text refers to:
  13. 13. MACKENZIE 2014
    The Movies MY WEEK WITH MARILYN Has anyone counted the number of books, films and even songs (Elton John’s “Candle in the Wind”, for example) that have been dedicated to the life and death of Marilyn Monroe (1926-62)?This is in addition to all the movies __( I )__ Marilyn herself made during her brief career. Nearly 50 years after her death, the Monroe industry is alive and well. The latest example is My Week With Marilyn (__( II )__ received its US release in November, and is scheduled for Brazil on February 24). It tells the story of the film star’s trip to Britain, during the course___( III )__ she worked with Sir Laurence Olivier. Seen through the eyes of Olivier’s assistant, Colin Clark (__( IV )__ Marilyn had an affair), it stars Michelle Williams as Marilyn (pictured above), Kenneth Branagh as Olivier, and Judi Dench, __( V )__ plays another great actress, Dame Sybil Torndike. www.speakup.com.br The words that properly fill in blanks I, II, III, IV and V, in the text, are
  14. 14. UDESC 2015
    'Twerking' bounces into Oxford dictionary     LONDON – Twerking, the rump-busting up-and-down dance move long beloved on America's hip-hop scene, has officially gone mainstream. 5It's got the English dictionary entry to prove it.     Britain's Oxford Dictionaries said the rapid-fire gyrations employed by U.S. pop starlet Miley Cyrus to bounce her way to the top of the charts had become 3increasingly visible in the past 12 months and would be added to its publications under the entry: "Twerk, verb." Although Cyrus's eye-popping moves at Monday's MTV Video Music Awards may have been many viewers' first introduction to the practice, Oxford Dictionaries' Katherine Connor Martin said "twerking" was some two decades old.     "There are many theories about the origin of this word, and since it arose in oral use, we may never know the answer for sure," Martin said. "We think the most likely theory is that it is an alteration of work, because that word has a history of 4being used in similar ways, with dancers being encouraged to 'work it.' The 't' could be a result of blending with another word such as twist or twitch."     "Twerk" will be added to the dictionary as part of its quarterly update, 1which includes words such as "selfie," the word typically used to describe pouty smartphone self-portraits, "digital detox" for time spent way from Facebook and Twitter, and "Bitcoin," for the nationless electronic currency, 2whose gyrations have also caught the world's eye.     Oxford Dictionaries is responsible for a range of reference works, including Oxford Dictionaries Online, which focuses on modern usage, and the historically-focused Oxford English Dictionary, which probably won't be adding "twerk" to its venerable pages any time soon.     The definition: "Twerk, v.: dance to popular music in a sexually 6provocative manner involving thrusting hip movements and a low, squatting stance." By RAPHAEL SATTER Associated Press (www.mercurynews.com) Accessed on: august 10th, 2014. The words in bold: “which” (ref. 1) and “whose” (ref. 2) are consecutively related to:
  15. 15. Stoodi
    Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences below: That is the house ____ she lives in.
  16. 16. UPE 2011
    Sally _____ husband is in the army, is going to Iraq.
  17. 17. UNIFESP 2008
    Tracing the Cigarette’s Path From Sexy to Deadly By Howard Markel, MD (...) The years after World War II, however, were a time of major breakthroughs in epidemiological thought. In 1947, Richard Doll and A. Bradford Hill of the British Medical Research Council created a sophisticated statistical technique to document the association between rising rates of lung cancer and increasing numbers of smokers. The prominent surgeon Evarts A. Graham and a medical student, Ernst L. Wynder, published a landmark article in 1950 comparing the incidence of lung cancer in their nonsmoking and smoking patients at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis. They concluded that “cigarette smoking, over a long period, is at least one important factor in the striking increase in bronchogenic cancer.” Predictably, the tobacco companies derided these and other studies as mere statistical arguments or anecdotes rather than definitions of causality.   In the 1980s, scientists established the revolutionary concept that nicotine is extremely addictive. The tobacco companies publicly rejected such claims, even as they took advantage of cigarettes’ addictive potential by routinely spiking them with extra nicotine to make it harder to quit smoking. And their marketing memorandums document advertising campaigns aimed at youngsters to hook whole new generations of smokers. (www.nytimes.com/2007/03/20/health. Adaptado.) No trecho do último parágrafo – The tobacco companies publicly rejected such claims… – a expressão such claims refere-se a
  18. 18. UEMA 2015
    Frejat In 1985, Frejat, then guitarist for Barão Vermelho, hit the stage wearing green and yellow clothes. It was January 15th, the day in which Tancredo Neves was named president of Brazil. Cazuza sang "Pro Dia Nascer Feliz" with lots of enthusiasm. Frejat returns to the festival this year for a solo performance on October 1st. Fonte: Disponível em: TAM. TAM nas nuvens. São Paulo: New Content Editora, set/2011.   O fragmento que apresenta um pronome relativo é
  19. 19. UNICENTRO 2010
    My heart is like a singing bird Whose nest is in a watered shoot; My heart is like an apple-tree Whose boughs are bent with thick-set fruit; Extract of ‘A Birthday’ by Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-1894).   “My heart is like an apple-tree Whose boughs are bent with thick-set fruit”.   The relative pronoun in the sentence above is the same as in
  20. 20. UPF 2016
    North Carolina and Mississippi See Tourist Backlash After L.G.B.T. Laws By Shivani Vora April 22nd, 2016 The reaction has been swift. The  singer   Bryan   Adams   canceled   his   concert   in Mississippi in protest against what he called an “anti-L.G.B.T.” law, and the actress Sharon Stone decided not to film a movie there. In North Carolina, Bruce Springsteen, Ringo Starr,  Pearl  Jam  and  Ani DiFranco have canceled shows in response to a law regulating transgender bathroom access.                the celebrity response is  drawing considerable attention, the travel industry in each state is more concerned about lower-profile visitors: the everyday tourists                         have  already  begun  canceling trips or planning vacations elsewhere. […] The damaging impact is already being felt in North Carolina,                              last  month  passed  a  law that limits transgender people to using bathrooms that match the sex on their birth certificates. Tourism is a crucial driver of the economy in the state, the sixth most-visited in the country,        domestic travelers spent a record $21.3 billion in 2014, according to Visit North Carolina, the state’s tourist board. […] Regardless of the locus of the political tensions, the cancellations are being reported statewide. Marriott International, with 134 properties across its portfolio of brands in North Carolina, and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, with 20, are also seeing canceled reservations. […]  (Retrieved and adapted from http://www.nytimes.com.. Access on  April, 22nd, 2016)   Select the alternative that adequately fills in the blanks respectively.
  21. 21. UNIFESP 2009
    FIFTY YEARS OF BOSSA NOVA Bossa Nova, Brazil’s unique mix of jazz and samba, celebrates 50 years this month with shows by one of the genre’s pioneers, João Gilberto, who brought The Girl from Ipanema to the world. The three concerts by 77-year-old Gilberto in Rio and São Paulo sold out within an hour of going on sale Thursday, testifying to the lasting appeal and inspiration of both the silky music and the singer’s hypnotically breathy performance. Gilberto — the surviving member of the trio behind Bossa Nova that also counted composer Tom Jobim and  poet Vinicius de Moraes — has not sung in public in Brazil for five years. His reputation, though, has never diminished, ever since August 1958 when his singular voice and guitar playing appeared on Chega de Saudade (Enough Longing, or, more commonly in English, No More Blues), a tune by Jobim and Moraes.   That was the first track to lay out the cool, intimate harmonies of Bossa Nova that add complexity to samba’s more basic rhythms, giving it a jazz evolution whose impact has been felt over decades. US jazz greats Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd fell under its sway and added to its popularity.   (http://music.ndtv.com/story. August 17, 2008. Adaptado.)   No trecho do terceiro parágrafo do texto — That was the first track to lay out the cool, intimate harmonies of Bossa Nova —, a palavra that refere-se a
  22. 22. UFRGS 2015
    The Road Not Taken   Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth;   Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same,   And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.   I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I – I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Adaptado de: FROST, Robert. The Road not Taken .  Disponível em: . Acesso em: 08 set. 2014.     Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a reescrita do verso And that has made all the difference (l. 20), sem prejuízo do sentido literal e da correção gramatical.
  23. 23. UNIFESP 2008
    Brazil president: Ethanol production boom won’t harm Amazon (AP) Rio de Janeiro – Brazil’s president said his nation’s booming ethanol business won’t hurt the Amazon rain forest, dismissing criticism that the alternative fuel could cause deforestation. Silva, referring to concerns raised during his European visit last week, said Monday that it is unjustified to think that increased production of sugar cane for ethanol could prompt more jungle clearing. He said that Amazon weather conditions aren’t favorable for the sugar cane used to produce ethanol. While there are few sugarcane-ethanol plantations in the Amazon, environmentalists have voiced concerns that a global ethanol boom could accelerate rain forest destruction if trees are cleared to make room for crops. Some soy plantations in central Brazil are being transformed to sugarcane ethanol operations and environmentalists say that could lead soy farmers to move into the Amazon for their crop, which is also in high demand worldwide, particularly from China. (www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/10/business. Adaptado.)   No trecho do segundo parágrafo do texto –  Some soy plantations in central Brazil are being transformed to sugarcane ethanol operations and environmentalists say that could lead soy farmers to move into the Amazon for their crop, which is also in high demand worldwide, particularly from China. – a palavra which refere-se 
  24. 24. UFRGS 2014
    “Fan” is ........ abbreviated form of “fanatic”, which has ........ roots in ........ Latin word “fanaticus”, which simply meant “belonging to the temple, a devotee”. But these words quickly assumed negative connotations, to the point of becoming references to excessive religious belief and to any mistaken enthusiasm.   Based on such connotations, news reports frequently characterize fans as psychopaths ........ frustrated fantasies of intimate relationships with stars or unsatisfied desires to achieve stardom take violent and antisocial forms. Whether viewed as a religious fanatic, a psychopathic killer, a neurotic fantasist, or a lust-crazed groupie, the fan remains a “fanatic” with interests alien to the realm of “normal” cultural experience and a mentality dangerously out of touch with reality.   To understand the logic behind this discursive construction of fans, we must reconsider what we mean by taste. Concepts of “good taste,” appropriate conduct, or aesthetic merit are not natural or universal; rather, they are rooted in social experience and reflect particular class interests. Taste becomes one of the important means by which social distinctions are maintained and class identities are forged. Those who “naturally” possess appropriate tastes “deserve” a privileged position, while the tastes of others are seen as underdeveloped. Taste distinctions determine desirable and undesirable ways of relating to cultural objects, strategies of interpretation and styles of consumption.   The stereotypical conception of the fan reflects anxieties about the violation of dominant cultural hierarchies. The fans’ transgression of bourgeois taste disrupt dominant cultural hierarchies, insuring that their preferences be seen as abnormal and threatening by those who have an interest in the maintenance of these standards (even by those who may share similar tastes but express them in different ways). Adapted from: JENKINS, Henry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York / London: Routledge, 1992. p. 12-16.     Select the alternative which correctly fills in the gap in the second paragraph.
  25. 25. IFBA 2016
    Read the text that follows and answer the question according to it. EU farmers protest The warning from farmers is that Europe 1is drowning in milk. Plummeting milk prices 2have led farmers to protest on the streets of Brussels. Police said that  farmers and close to tractors were at the 3demonstration. And the scenes seemed to 4have made a difference. EU Agricultural ministers announced a 500 million euro aid package focused on helping milk producers. Russia is one of the EU’s main agricultural export markets worth some  billion 5annually. The Russian ban on imports of EU food products and the deregulation of the market hit dairy farmers this year. Changing dietary habits and slowing demand from China have also affected prices for dairy products. The environment secretary Liz Truss planned to call for the creation of a dairy future’s market, similar to those for grain and 6sugar, 7which the government says will give the UK’s dairy farmers more certainty over future prices. Some 8farmers have called for milk production quotas to be reintroduced to avoid 9them having to sell at a loss. Available at: http://www.newsinlevels.com. Accessed on Sept. 15th, 2015. Adapted.   Read the sentences I, II, III and IV. Then, check the correct answer according to the Text.   I. “is drowning” (ref. 1) is a future action. II. “have led” (ref. 2) and “have made” (ref. 4) are both actions happening in the present. III. “demonstration” (ref. 3) and “annually” (ref. 5) are words formed with prefixes. IV. “which” (ref. 7) refers to “sugar” (ref. 6) and “them” (ref. 9) refers to “farmers” (ref. 8).
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