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- 1. UFSM 2013Reducing climate change is good for your health 7More ‘climate-friendly’ investments in transport, energy and housing could help prevent significant noncommunicable disease, WHO review finds Washington, D.C., 14 June 2011 (PAHO/WHO) – 6Greener investments in transport, housing and household energy policies can help prevent significant cardiovascular and chronic respiratory disease, obesity-related conditions and cancers. These are among the findings of 10a new global World Health Organization series that looks systematically, for the first time ever, at the health ‘co-benefits’ of investments in climate change mitigation reviewed by the lntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Overall, 4sustainable development policies in housing, transport, and household energy may benefit health right away – even if the broader climate gains are realized over years or decades. 5“Some climate change mitigation measures yield broader health gains than others,” says Dr Maria Neira, director of WHO’s Department of Public Health and Environment. “Potential health benefits – as well as certain risks – should be considered more systematically in climate assessments. And if that is done, we can identify strategies that are truly win-win.” 2Many forms of asthma and allergies, as well as heart disease and strokes related to increasingly intense heat waves and cold spells could be addressed by more climate-friendly housing measures, the report finds. As 8other examples of ‘best buys’ for health, initial findings from reviews of other sectors identify considerable evidence that: — 1Investments in, and use of, safe walking/cycling and public transport networks are strongly associated with more healthy physical activity, lower rates of premature mortality, and less obesity. However, the last IPCC report focuses on better fuels and engines as mitigation measures, giving little attention to the much wider benefits offered by policies that favour walking, cycling and public transport. This neglects the broader range of health and social benefits that can be derived from adopting more sustainable transport. — 3Deaths of more than 1 million people annually from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to indoor air pollution from traditional biomass and coal-fired stoves are largely avoidable with more energy efficient stoves. An estimated 15% of this burden in Latin American and Sub-Saharan African could potentially be averted in less than a decade if more advanced biomass or biogas stoves were introduced at a pace compatible with UN targets for achieving universal access to modern energy services by the year 2030. “This series explains why green housing and home energy, transport, and urban environments can improve our health – and why the health sector can prevent much disease, at very little cost, by advocating for healthier investments in some key sectors,” says WHO’s Dr Carlos Dora, an epidemiologist and coordinator of the series. As much as 1180% of chronic disease is now occurring in lower income countries, where urban growth is driving rapid slum expansion, soaring traffic volumes, air and water pollution and rates of traffic injury. “9People really cannot make healthy lifestyle choices – unless they have a healthier environment,” Dora observes. “So we, as health professionals, need to promote basic environmental measures that cost the health sector very little, and can avoid many subsequent years of treatment. And these health savings can be captured immediately – while the climate benefits accumulate for the future.” Glossário: change – mudança choice –escolha disease – doença finding – descoberta gain – ganho health – saúde heart – coração housing – habitação income – renda measure – medida mitigation – redução slum – favela stove – fogão yield – produzir, render Fonte: Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 jul. 2012. Considere os trechos a seguir. I. “People really cannot make healthy lifestyle choices – unless they have a healthier environment” (ref. 9). II. “a new global World Health Organization series that looks systematically” (ref. 10). III. “80% of chronic disease is now occurring in lower income countries” (ref. 11). Os segmentos sublinhados em I, II e III apresentam ideia de, respectivamente,
- 2. PUC-MG 2015Read the following passage and choose the option which best completes each question, according to the text: Bubblews pays users to use social network Social media startup Bubblews wants to revolutionize social networking by paying users to share their content. “It’s a new perspective on the social networking model,” said Arvind Dixit, the 26 year-old Bubblews CEO (Chief Executive Officer). “One of our fundamental beliefs is that when someone is providing a service to you, you should compensate them.” Bubblews is sharing a portion of its ad revenue with users, paying a penny for a like, view, or comment on its site. Payments are made to a ‘Bubblews bank’ and, after reaching $50 can be cashed out. At least one analyst thinks that the Bubblews model could shake things up in a social networking world dominated by titans like Facebook and Twitter. "The idea that social media users will continue to contribute to networks for free has a fixed limit, because most people have bills to pay and should, over time, favor sites that share profits with them over those that do not,” wrote Rob Enderle, principal analyst at tech research firm Enderle Group. Bubblews is encouraging people to share their passions in a minimum of 400 characters, supplemented by photos. 1Although in the last stage of testing up until now, the site has over 20 million visitors a month from more than 240 countries. Each post on Bubblews is known as a ‘bubble’, and the site uses a plus sign (+) instead of hashtags. Jason Zuccari, Bubblews president told FoxNews.com that the site has already had a positive financial impact on members of its user community. “People aren’t going to be able to quit their job, but it’s good to add things to their life that they never had before,” he said, using the example of a woman in the Philippines who was able to buy a refrigerator. (http://www.foxnews.com. Acesso: 16/07/2014. Adaptado.) The words up until now in “Although in the last stage of testing up until now” (ref. 1) convey an idea of
- 3. UEMG 2013The Paradox of Our Times by Jeff Dickson The paradox of our times in history is that We have taller buildings, but shorter tempers; Wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints. We spend more, but have less; We buy more, but enjoy it less. We have bigger houses and smaller families; More conveniences, but less time. We have more degrees, but less sense; More knowledge, but less judgment; More experts, but more problems; More medicine, but less wellness. We drink too much, smoke too much, spend too recklessly; Laugh too little, drive too fast, get too angry too quickly, Stay up too late, get too tired, Read too seldom, watch TV too much, And pray too seldom. We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values. We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often. We’ve learned how to make a living, but not a life; We’ve added years to life, not life to years. We’ve been all the way to the moon and back, But have trouble crossing the street to meet a new neighbor. We’ve conquered outer space, but not inner space; We’ve cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul; We’ve split the atom, but not our prejudice. We have higher incomes, but lower morals; We’ve become long on quantity, but short on quality. These are the times of tall men, and short character; Steep profits, and shallow relationships. These are the times of world peace, but domestic warfare; More leisure, but less fun; More kinds of food, but less nutrition. These are days of two incomes, but more divorce; Of fancier houses, but broken homes. It is a time when there is much in the show window And nothing in the stockroom; A time when technology can bring this letter to you, And a time when you can choose either to make a difference Or just hit delete. (www.motivateus.com/stories/paradox.htm - July 2012.) In the line, “we talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often”, what kind of adverb is seldom?
- 4. G1 - IFBA 2016Read the text that follows and answer the question(s) bellow. ‘Sin-free’ Facebook alternative gains 100,000 followers in Brazil By Conor Gaffey 7/6/15 at 3:30 PM A ‘sin-free’ alternative to Facebook, set up by a group of Brazilian evangelical Christians, has gained 100,00 users in its first month. Facegloria is aiming to convince Brazil’s 42 million evangelicals to switch to the Christian social network from Facebook, which the site’s founders claim purveys sinful content such as violence and pornography. 1The new site is monitored by more than 20 volunteers, who vet sexually explicit content and remove swearwords and other offensive phrases which fall under a list of approximately 600 prohibited words. Co-founder Atilla Barros told news agency AFP that the team hoped to have 10 million users within two years and that they were expecting a rush of users in the coming months when they launch their mobile app. “We want to be morally and technically better than Facebook. We want all Brazilian evangelicals to shift to Facegloria,” said Barros. The idea for the site was born three years ago and the four-person founding team received financial support from the mayor of Ferraz de Vasconcelos, a municipality in the state of São Paulo, as they raised $16,000 (14,500) to set up the project. The Brazilian site lacks the popular ‘Like’ feature by which Facebook users endorse each other’s content. Instead, Facegloria users can click ‘Amen’ to show their appreciation for their friends posts and photos. Acir dos Santos, the mayor of Ferraz de Vasconcelos, told AFP that the network hoped to grow into a challenger of some of social media’s biggest names and that the team had purchased the site’s domain name in a multitude of languages, indicating plans for global expansion in the future. “We want to take on Facebook and Twitter here and everywhere,” said dos Santos. If it’s going to happen, Brazil is probably the ideal place for a Christian social network to begin. It has the world’s largest Roman Catholic population, with some 123 million Brazilians identifying as Roman Catholic. More than 40% of the world’s Roman Catholics live in Latin America. However, the country also has a growing evangelical population, which has increased from 6% to 22% in the past 35 years, with the Catholic proportion dropping from 90% to 63% in the same period. If this rate of change continues, evangelicals are expected to outnumber Catholics by 2040. Available at: st, 2015. Adapted. “The new site is monitored by more than 20 volunteers, Who vet sexually explicit content and remove swearwords and other offensive phrases which fall under a list of approximately 600 prohibited words.” (ref. 1) Based on that excerpt, it is correct to say:
- 5. ITA 20122045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal By Lev Grossman (…), Kurzweil believes that we’re approaching a moment when computers will become intelligent, and not just intelligent but more intelligent than humans. When that happens, humanity – our bodies, our minds, our civilization – will be completely and irreversibly transformed. He believes that this moment is not only inevitable but imminent. According to his calculations, the end of human civilization as we know it is about 35 years away. Computers are getting faster. Everybody knows that. Also, computers are getting faster faster – that is, the rate at which they’re getting faster is increasing. True? True. So if computers are getting so much faster, so incredibly fast, there might conceivably come a moment when they are capable of something comparable to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence. All that horsepower could be put in the service of emulating whatever it is our brains are doing when they create consciousness – not just doing arithmetic very quickly or composing piano music but also driving cars, writing books, making ethical decisions, appreciating fancy paintings, making witty observations at cocktail parties. If you can swallow that idea, and Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart people can, then all bets are off. 1From that point on, there’s no reason to think computers would stop getting more powerful. 2They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are. Their rate of development would also continue to increase, because they would take over their own development from their slower-thinking human creators. Imagine a computer scientist that was itself a super-intelligent computer. It would work incredibility quickly. It could draw on huge amounts of data effortlessly. It wouldn’t even take breaks to play Farmville. (…) http://www.time.com/printout/0,8816,2048138,00.html. Acesso em 07/04/2011. Adaptado. Na sentença They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are (ref. 2), o vocábulo grifado poderia ser substituído por
- 6. UFRGS 2001When you check into a Hershey Resort, you and your people get something no other convention center gives. The assurance of Hershey quality. The same fine quality that you've come to expect from Hershey Foods Corp. over the last 67 years. The very same quality that makes our other Hershey Resorts outstanding convention centers. With 1thoroughly professional staffs. The best and the newest facilities. Country locations easy to reach by highways, interstates and airports. (Dozens of flights daily and free limousine services.) Pick the Hershey that's best for you. You'll get 2unbeatable facilities for work and play. But above all, you'll find all those things you can still trust, alive and well and living in Hershey Resorts. Fonte:Meetings and Conventions, April 1980 A palavra "thoroughly" (ref. 1) significa o mesmo que
- 7. UFV 2003The Mozart Effect 1 Mozart makes you smarter! Researchers at the University of California at Irvine discovered that people who listened to ten minutes of Mozart before taking an intelligence test scored higher than people who listened to ten minutes of relaxation instructions or who, for ten minutes, sat in silence. Scientists speculate that some kinds of music stimulate neural pathways in the brain. For a period of up to fifteen minutes after listening, the group that heard Mozart improved significantly in abstract and spatial reasoning. The one downer - that improvement is 1temporary - may be because listening is a passive activity. No one knows if listening longer results in staying smarter longer. 2 Although some studies suggest that children as young as two can benefit intellectually from music, you can be any age to take advantage of the Mozart Effect. You don't have to be a musician. You can profit from it regardless of your level of formal education. It doesn't matter what kind of job you do, nor if you've never listened to a note of Mozart in your life. You don't even have to like music! The Mozart Effect works automatically. 3 As a man, Mozart was playful, mercurial, ebullient: a quick thinker. The rapidity with which he processed information and went from one level of understanding to the next is echoed in the meticulous organization of his 2frequently complicated but 3always clear music. Mozart's music induces widely varied emotional responses in us, but it 4never allows us to wallow: it changes too 5fast. 4 Mozart had a notable career as a child virtuoso. His father, Leopold, had him playing piano at four, composing by five. Mozart's neural pathways, widened at an early age and stimulated constantly (Mozart composed more than six hundred works before he died at thirty-five), facilitated his fluent expression of musical thought. What is it in Mozart that heightens our perceptivity? Perhaps it has something to do with being able to pay attention. (Source: Adapted from Mozart for Your Mind: Boost Your Brain Power with Wolfgang Amadeus, Philips Classics Productions, CD 11.649.77.412, 1995.) All the following words are used as adverbs in the text, EXCEPT:
- 8. MACKENZIE 2012Go Easy on Yourself By Stuart Bradford Do you treat yourself as well as you treat your friends and family? That simple question is the basis for a new area of psychological research called self-compassion — how _____(I)_____ people view themselves. People who find it _____(II)_____ to be supportive and understanding to others often score _____(III)_____ low on self-compassion tests. They get _____(IV)_____ with themselves for perceived failures like being overweight or not exercising. ANXIOUS The research suggests that accepting our imperfections may be the first step toward better health. People who score high on tests of self-compassion have less depression and anxiety, and tend to be happier and more optimistic. Preliminary data suggest that self-compassion can even influence how much we eat and may help some people lose weight. This idea does to contrast with the advice of many doctors and self-help books, which suggest that willpower and self-discipline are the keys to better health. But Kristin Neff, a pioneer in the field, says self-compassion is not to be confused with self-indulgence or lower standards. “I found in my research that the biggest reason people aren’t more self-compassionate is that they are afraid they’ll become self-indulgent,” said Dr. Neff, an associate professor of human development at the University of Texas at Austin. “They believe self-criticism is what keeps them in line. Most people have gotten it wrong because our culture says being hard on yourself is the way to be.” www.nytimes.com The words that properly fill in the blanks I, II, III and IV in the text are:
- 9. EPCAR (AFA) 2012Twilight Twilight is a 2008 American romantic vampire film based ______ Stephenie Meyer’s popular novel of the same name. It is the first film in The Twilight Saga film series. This film focuses on the development of the relationship between Bella Swan and Edward Cullen (a vampire), and the subsequent efforts of Cullen and his family to keep Swan safe ______ a coven of evil vampires. The project was in development for approximately 3 years ______ Paramount Pictures, during which time a screen adaptation that differed significantly from the novel was written. Principal photography took 44 days and the film was primarily shot in Oregon. Twilight was theatrically released ______ November 21 2010, grossing over US$392 million worldwide and became the most purchased DVD of the year. The soundtrack was released in the same year. Following the success of the film, New Moon and Eclipse, the next two novels in the series, were produced as films the following year. Adapted from Wikipedia Considering the boldfaced adverb in the text, mark the sentence in which the word in italics has the function of an adverb.
- 10. UERJ 2002PROPOSAL FOR THE UNITED NATIONS TO DECLARE THE 21st CENTURY AS THE CENTURY OF RESTORING THE EARTH 1 Sustainable development is now recognized as an important goal by politicians, conservationists, aid workers, planners and many other people. However, for sustainable development to be achieved, the world requires, first of all, to have sustainable ecosystems, as all our human well-being and wealth ultimately derives from the ability of our planet to provide abundance - clean air, fresh water, healthy food and natural resources which can be used to make products for people's benefit. 2 At present, we do not have sustainable ecosystems in the world - everywhere forests, wetlands, savannas etc are being depleted, fragmented and destroyed. 3 To return our planet to a state of health again, the current efforts to prevent further destruction must be matched by a concerted programme of restoration, to help the Earth heal, and to ensure that there is a sustainable future for ourselves, and all our fellow species. 4 Most environmental initiatives are by necessity concentrated on 'damage limitation' - reducing the destructive impact our industrial culture has on the world, but because of this they tend to be adversarial, creating opposition and polarity amongst different people and interest groups. By contrast, restoration is an entirely positive activity which can, and often does, draw together people from different backgrounds behind the common task of doing something positive for their local area and therefore the planet. 5 Because environmental degradation is a global phenomenon which transcends cultural, political and national differences, restoration will provide an opportunity to unite all of humanity behind a shared goal - the first in our history - of helping to heal the Earth. SOME POSSIBLE INITIATIVES TO BEGIN THE CENTURY OF RESTORING THE EARTH 6 Ten percent of each nation's military budget to be re-directed to restoration activities, either in cash or 'in kind'. Military personnel, equipment and organisational abilities to be made available for key restoration programmes. This will help to provide a new, meaningful role for the military in the next century, as true global security depends on having a healthy planet to live on! 7 Establishment of an Earth Restoration Service, enrolling people from all over the world as volunteers in essential restoration programmes. 8 Starting the new millennium with an international focus on restoration will provide a positive vision for nations and individuals to rally behind, and will help people everywhere to realize that we need to actively take care of our degraded world for our future well-being. http://www.treesforlife.org.uk/tfl.intnl.html "as all our human well-being and wealth ultimately derives from the ability of our planet to provide abundance" (par. 1) In the excerpt above, the adverb ULTIMATELY means:
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