Lista de exercícios
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Whales are people, too One of the most important features of science is that scientific progress regularly leads to important ethical questions. This is particularly true with research about cetaceans — whales, dolphins and the like — because it has become increasingly apparent that the inner life of these nonhumans is more complex than most humans realize. We have learned that their capacity for suffering is significantly greater than has been imagined — which makes much human behavior towards these nonhumans ethically problematic. There is now ample scientific evidence that capacities once thought to be unique to humans are shared by these beings. 1Like humans, whales and dolphins are 'persons'. That is, they are self-aware beings with individual personalities and a rich inner life. They have the ability to think abstractly, feel deeply and choose their actions. Their lives are characterized by close, long-term relationships with conspecifics in communities characterized by culture. In short, whales and dolphins are a “who”, not a “what”. 2However, as the saying goes, there is good news and there is bad news. The good news is that the scientific community is gradually recognizing the importance of these ethical issues. For example, more marine mammal scientists are steering away from doing research on captive dolphins. More significantly, a small group of experts who met at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies in the spring of 2010 to evaluate the ethical implications of the scientific research on cetaceans concluded that the evidence merited issuing a Declaration of Rights for Cetaceans: Whales and Dolphins. This group included such prominent scientists as Lori Marino and Hal Whitehead. Particularly important in this declaration was the recognition that whales and dolphins are persons who are "beyond use". Treating them as 'property' is indefensible. Unfortunately, while there has been consistent progress in scientists' sensitivity to the ethical issues, the same cannot be said for those who use cetaceans to generate revenue. Disponível em: www.abc.net.au/environment/articles. (Adaptado) As palavras Like (ref. 1) e However (ref. 2) estabelecem, respectivamente, relações de
The Birth of a Storyteller Jackie Torrence spent her childhood in North Carolina, in the southern part of the United States. She was a shy child because she had problems with her teeth, which made it hard for her to talk. Other children teased her because of her speech problem, so she spent much of her childhood playing alone. One of Jackie’s favorite games was to pretend she was on television. She told stories out loud using gestures and dramatic voices. At school, Jackie soon learned that she was good at writing stories, and with the help of her favorite teacher, she started to work on improving her speech. Jackie’s first storytelling performance was in a library. She was working as a librarian and was asked to entertain a group of children. Jackie told them a story and they loved it! Before long, she began telling stories within her community. Many of her stories came from old American and African-American folktales. Eventually, she started telling stories across North America. As Jackie’s fame increased, her health decreased. She now has to use a wheelchair, but this has not stopped her storytelling career. Jackie’s stories have been published in books, magazines, and newspapers and she has appeared on radio and television. She has won awards for nine of her sound recordings and three of her television specials. Adapted from NorthStar 3: Listening and Speaking, 2nd Edition (Longman, p57), Helen S. Solórzano and Jennifer P. L. Schmidt Read the passage below. Jackie Torrence became a storyteller ____ chance. When she was working as a librarian, she was asked ____ tell a story ____ a community event. Eventually, she continued telling tales ____ 47 states in the U.S. The correct sequence to complete the gaps with the prepositions is
EPCAR (AFA) 2012
Twilight Twilight is a 2008 American romantic vampire film based ______ Stephenie Meyer’s popular novel of the same name. It is the first film in The Twilight Saga film series. This film focuses on the development of the relationship between Bella Swan and Edward Cullen (a vampire), and the subsequent efforts of Cullen and his family to keep Swan safe ______ a coven of evil vampires. The project was in development for approximately 3 years ______ Paramount Pictures, during which time a screen adaptation that differed significantly from the novel was written. Principal photography took 44 days and the film was primarily shot in Oregon. Twilight was theatrically released ______ November 21 2010, grossing over US$392 million worldwide and became the most purchased DVD of the year. The soundtrack was released in the same year. Following the success of the film, New Moon and Eclipse, the next two novels in the series, were produced as films the following year. Adapted from Wikipedia Choose the correct prepositions to fill in the gaps above.
Buses for the future The city of Curitiba, Brazil, has one of the most convenient and modern bus systems in the world, called Bus Rapid Transit. Very large buses for up to 300 people travel on major roads all around the city. Passengers board the buses …………(I)…………… comfortable glass tube stations. If they don’t have a pass or a ticket, they pay their fare in the station, so everyone gets on the bus very quickly when it arrives. They can transfer to another route …………(II)…………… paying again. Where different bus routes connect, there are comfortable terminals, …………(III)…………….. telephones, small shops, and rest rooms. The system is efficient and very popular with the people of Curitiba. More than 70 percent of the commuters there travel ……..…(IV)…….… bus every day. JOHANSEN, K.L., CHASE, Rebecca T. World English: real people, real places, real language. Boston: Heinle Cengage Learning, 2010. (Adaptado.) Considerando o contexto e a gramática, marque a alternativa que preenche CORRETAMENTE as lacunas I, II, III e IV quanto ao uso das preposições.
Breadwinner As a single mom, Cordia Harrington just needed to bring home the bacon. She ended up rolling in dough. By Margaret Heffernan Cordia Harrington was tired __( I )__ standing up all day and smelling like French fries__( II )__ night. A property developer, she also owned and operated three McDonald’s franchises in Illinois, but as a divorced mother __( III )__ three boys, she yearned __( IV )__ a business that would provide __( V )__ her children and let her spend more time __(VI) __ them. Her aha moment struck, strangely enough, after she was nominated in 1992 to be on the McDonald’s bun committee. “The other franchisees, all men, thought that was hilarious because of the word bun,” she recalls. “But the joke was on them: They didn’t know the company would be picking me up in a corporate jet to see bakeries around the world. Every time I went to a meeting, I loved it. This was global!” The experience opened her eyes to business possibilities. When McDonald’s decided it wanted a new bun supplier, Harrington became determined to win the contract, even though she had no experience running a bakery. “You see a tiny crack in the door, and you have to run through it,” she says. “I really believed I could do this.” Harrington studied the bakery business and made sure she was never off executives’ radar. “If you have a dream, you can’t wait for people to call you,” she says. “So I’d visit a mill and send them photos of myself in a baker’s hat and jacket, holding a sign that said ‘I want to be your baker.’” After four years and 32 interviews, her persistence paid off. Harrington sealed the deal with a handshake, sold her franchises, invested everything she owned, and borrowed $13.5 million. She was ready to build the fastest, most automated bakery in the world. Reader’s Digest The prepositions that appropriately fill in blanks I, II, III, IV, V and VI, in the text, are
Everyday conversational narratives of personal experience might be regarded as the country 3cousins of more well-wrought narratives. The work of archaeologist Nicholas Toth revolutionized the understanding of Stone Age tools. Prior to Toth’s studies, the received perspective was that early hominids chipped a cobble in such a way that it could be used 1as a pick or a hand ax. Researchers considered the splintered flakes as waste products and examined them for information about techniques used to shape the stone core tool. While others were analyzing the morphological shapes and cognitive correlates of the 4chipped cores, Toth, in a radical turnabout, discovered that the flakes were the primary tools and that the large stone was an incidental by-product, possibly a secondary tool. The flakes 5turned out to be “extremely effective cutting tools” for animals, wood, 6hides, and other work. We posit that, like stone flakes, mundane conversational narratives of personal experience constitute the prototype of narrative activity rather than the 2flawed by-product of more artful and planned narrative discourse. OCHS, E. & CAPPS, L. (2001)Living Narrative – creating lives in everyday storytelling. Harvard University Press, England, p.3. Glossary: Chip – small piece of something, like wood or glass, mainly when it has broken off something. Cobble – small round-shaped stone; cobblestones. Well-wrought – skillfully shaped or decorated. O termo “as” é empregado com o mesmo sentido em “could be used as a pick” (ref. 1) e em
It was the summer that men first walked on the moon. I was very young back then, but I did not believe there would ever be future. I wanted to live dangerously, to push myself as far as I could go, and then see what happened to me when I got there. As it turned out, I 1nearly did not make it. Little by little, I saw my money dwindle to zero; I lost my apartment; I wound up living in the streets. If not for a girl named Kitty Wu, I probably 2would have starved to death. 3I had met her by chance only a short time before, but 4eventually I came to see that chance as a form of readiness a way of saving myself through the minds of others. That was the first part. From then on, strange things happened to me. I took the job with the old man in the wheelchair. I found out who my father was. I walked across the desert from Utah to California. That was a long time ago, of course, but I remeber them as the beginning of my life. AUSTER, Paul. Moon Palace. Chatham, Kent: Faber & Faber, 1989. p. 1. Complete the sentence below with the best alternative. Man walked .................... the moon .................... the first time .................... 1969.
China is expected to become one of the world's leading economies, so why are pupils still learning French6 rather than Mandarin7 in Britain8? For most students, there is little or no1. Despite predictions that it will dissapear as an international language, French dominates the timetables, followed by German9 and Spanish10. Exports to China are expected to quadruple by 201011 but most British schoolchildren are still not learning Mandarin. In one school, however, about 150 students now learn some Mandarin, under the tuition of Linzi Pan, the fourth Chinese assistant to work in the school. The Chinese language assistants who make it to the country are fearsomely well qualified12. In primary and secondary schools across the country there are about 30Chinese language assistants who not only contribute to language classes but also help to inject some idea of Chinese culture into the curriculum. Some students even get a 2 to visit China, thanks to the British Council's annual immersion courses for students in years 8 to 12, which give those travelling at least to weeks in a major Chinese city learning the language as well as seeing the 3 . In England there about 100 state schools teaching Chinese, as well as many more independent and weekend schools. The secretary of the British Association for Chinese Studies is adamant13 that the country needs much more investment, especially for teacher training and professional development, before Chinese studies can be introduced across the curriculum. Teachers report more interest in Mandarn than 10 years ago when people studied it because not only was it interesting but also rather exotic. Interest is now coming from all age groups, because of which evening-class provision across the country has shot up with many adults now learning the language for business 4 . It is very much about shifting British attitudes14. Historically, it has been the British Council that has promoted Britain in China but now we all ought to be making sure Britain is equipped to deal with China. Adapted from: The Independent, online edition, 11 Mar. 2005. In the phrase BY 2010 (ref. 11), BY is being used with the same meaning as in
Genetically modified foods Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. Currently available GM foods stem mostly from plants, but in the future foods derived from GM microorganisms or GM animals are likely to be introduced on the market. Most existing genetically modified crops have been developed to improve yield, through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases or of increased tolerance of herbicides. In the future, genetic modification could be aimed at altering the nutrient content of food, reducing its allergenic potential, or improving the efficiency of food production systems. All GM foods should be assessed before being allowed on the market. FAO/WHO Codex guidelines exist for risk analysis of GM food. (www.who.int) No trecho final do primeiro parágrafo “through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases”, o termo em destaque equivale, em português, a
EPCAR (AFA) 2015
JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyone's favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and 1killing jobs - from tailors to paralegals - for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in "a decade or two". The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: 2Where do machines work better than people? 3Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, it's projected that the next 4wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are "likely to diminish over the next decades". Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, 5people responsible for our safety, and management positions are 6the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but they're bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they can't answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at pattern-recognition and driving. So what are we better at? 7The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and 8caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesn't make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new 9opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation 10for the last three decades doesn't guarantee that they'll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. 11The truth is scarier. 12We don't really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant – a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble – to make something by joining separate parts to creep – to move slowly, quietly and carefully In the sentence “for the last three decades” (reference 10), the underlined item was used in the same way as in
Ecotourist: What type are you? Ecotourism accounts for 6% of the worldwide Gross Domestic Product with a staggering growth rate of 5% per year. The industry is being driven by a rising consumer demand, but 2there are different types of ecotourists. 6According to the United Nations, there are three types: hard ecotourist, soft ecotourist and the adventure ecotourist. 3They have a common interest but enjoy slightly different flavors of green travel. The hard ecotourist is motivated primarily by a scientific interest in nature and is interested in bird watching, nature photography, and botanical trips. Sometimes they will take on activities that require strenuous effort and non-hotel accommodations. The second type is the soft ecotourist. They are the fastest growing segment. This type is interested in observing wildlife and participating in local culture. Hiking is a favorite activity and they are less intense than the hard ecotourist. 5The third type is the adventure ecotourist. 4This type engages in moderate to high-risk activities such as surfing, scuba diving, snorkeling, wind surfing, whitewater rafting, and sport fishing. These types are the adrenaline all or nothing types 8looking for a challenge. Ecotourism promotes cultural awareness, tolerance and commitment to protecting the environment. But ecotourism does not mean sacrificing luxury. Luxury with an eco-experience is a fast growing market. There is an increasing demand from consumers for green luxury. 7It is a myth that in order to do things in an ecologically friendly way there is sacrifice. 1Being green does not mean a reduction in our quality of life, it actually means an improvement in our quality of life. Fonte: Disponível em: . Acesso em 17 ago. 2012. Considere os segmentos a seguir. I. “According to the United Nations, there are three types” (ref. 6). II. “This type engages in moderate to high-risk activities such as surfing, scuba diving, snorkeling, wind surfing” (ref. 4). III. “It is a myth that in order to do things in an ecologically friendly way there is sacrifice” (ref. 7). Marque a alternativa que apresenta segmentos que substituam respectivamente as expressões sublinhadas em I, II e III, sem que haja alteração de sentido.
Text 1 The widespread destruction of tropical rainforest ecosystems and the consequent extinction of numerous plant and animal species is happening before we know even the most basic facts about what we are losing. Covering only 6 percent of the Earth's surface, tropical moist forests contain at least half of all species. The 6abundant botanical resources of tropical forests have already provided substantial medical advances; yet only 1 percent of the known plant and animal species have been carefully examined for their medicinal potentials. Meanwhile, 2 percent of the world's rainforests are irreparably damaged each year. Scientists estimate that, at the accelerating rate at which rainforests are now being destroyed, as much as 20 or 25 percent of the world's plant species will soon be 7extinct. 1Approximately 7,000 medical compounds prescribed by Western doctors are obtained from plants. These drugs had an estimated retail value of US$ 43 billion some years ago. Seventy percent of the 3,000 plants identified by the United States National Cancer Institute as having potential anti-cancer properties are characteristic of the rainforest. Tropical forest species serve Western surgery and internal medicine in three ways. First, extracts from organisms can be used directly as drugs. 2For maladies ranging from persistent headaches to 8lethal contagions such as malaria, rainforest 9medicines have provided modern society with a variety of cures and pain relievers. Secondly, chemical structures of forest organisms sometimes serve as models from which scientists and researchers can chemically synthesize drug compounds. For example, the blueprint for aspirin comes from extracts of willow trees found in the rainforest. Neostigmine, a chemical obtained from the Calabar bean and used to treat glaucoma in West Africa, also provides the blueprint for synthetic insecticides. However, the chemical structures of most natural drugs are very complex, and simple extraction is usually less expensive than synthesis. 3Ninety percent of the prescription drugs that are based on higher plants include direct extractions from plants. Finally, rainforest plants provide aids for research. 4Certain plant compounds enable scientists to understand how cancer cells grow, while others serve as testing agents for potentially harmful food and drug products. Tropical forests offer hope for safer contraceptives for both women and men. The exponential growth of world population clearly demonstrates the need for more reliable and effective birth control methods. Worldwide, approximately 4,000 plant species have been shown to offer contraceptive possibilities. The rainforest also holds secrets for safer pesticides for farmers. 5Two species of potatoes have leaves that produce a sticky substance that traps and kills predatory insects. This natural self-defense mechanism could potentially 10reduce the need for using pesticides on potatoes. Who knows what other tricks the rainforest might have up its leaves? http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/05f.html 1995-2003 Rainforest Action Network Mark the only sentence that CANNOT be correctly completed with the preposition FROM.
Am I all right? While John Gilbert was in hospital, he asked his doctor to tell him whether his operation had been successful, but the doctor refused to do so. The following day, the patient asked for a bedside telephone. When he was alone, he telephoned the hospital exchange and asked for Doctor Millington. When the doctor answered the phone, Mr. Gilbert said he was inquiring about a certain patient, a Mr. John Gilbert. He asked if Mr. Gilbert’s operation had been successful and the doctor told him that it had been. He then asked when Mr. Gilbert would be allowed to go home and the doctor told him that he would have to stay in hospital for another two weeks. Then Dr. Millington asked the caller if he was a relative of the patient. ‘No,’ the patient answered, ‘I am Mr. John Gilbert.’ ALEXANDER, L. G. Practice and progress. Longman. London, 1978. Read the paragraph and fill in the blanks using a preposition. Freddie Mercury was born ______ September 5th, 1946. He was the vocalist _____ the band rock “Queen” and composed many hits _____ the band. As the lead _____ “Queen”, he travelled all _____ the world. Freddie Mercury died ____ 1991.
Mr. Eugene Foster lives with his wife in a large house in New York City, and they 1have four servants. On this particular morning, there is a great deal of bustling about. One maid is distributing dust sheets to every room, while another 2is draping them over the furniture. The butler is bringing down suitcases, and Mrs. Foster herself is flying from room to room and pretending to supervise these operations. Actually, she is thinking of nothing at all except that she is going to miss her plane if her husband doesn't come out of his study soon and get ready. Mr. Foster may possibly have a right to be irritated with his wife's foolishness, but he can have no excuse for increasing her misery by .......... her waiting 4unnecessarily. It is by no means certain that this is what he 3does, yet whenever they go somewhere, his timing is so accurate and his manner so bland that it is hard to believe he isn't purposely inflicting a nasty torture of his own on the 5unhappy lady. And one thing he must know - that she would never dare to call out and tell him .......... . He disciplined her too well for that. He must also know that if he is prepared to wait even beyond the last moment of safety, he can 6drive her nearly into hysterics. It seems almost as though he 'wanted' to miss the plane simply to intensify the poor woman's suffering. (Adapted from: DAHL, Roald. The way up to heaven. In: Tales of the unexpected. London: Penguin Book, 1979. p. 179-180.) Assinale a alternativa que completa correta e respectivamente as lacunas do texto
TEMPER TRACKING: ANGRY OUTBURSTS MAY TAKE A TOLL ON THE LUNGS By Nicholas Bakalar, September 19, 2006 Men who are chronically hostile and angry may face a future of sharply diminishing lung function, new research suggests. In 1986, scientists administered a questionnaire to 670 men ages 21 to 80 to assess their hostility. Each then received a pulmonary exam within one year of completing the questionnaire. The men were tracked for an average of 8.2 years, with comprehensive physical examinations every 3 to 5 years, including an average of three pulmonary function tests. After controlling for age, weight, height, smoking status and other variables, the scientists found a consistent association between high hostility and lower levels of lung function. Among more hostile men, pulmonary function was worse at every exam over a 10-year period when compared with less hostile subjects. The study appears online in Thorax. Since levels of lung function were in the normal range at the start of the study, the researchers say, the possibility that poor lung function led to hostility rather than the other way around is unlikely. They acknowledge, however, that an unknown factor could cause both hostility and poor lung function. Still, Dr. Rosalind J. Wright, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard and the senior author of the study, said there was no doubt that emotions could cause physical changes, some of which could be detrimental. "When you experience physical symptoms around negative emotions, your heart rate goes up, you start sweating, and so on", Dr. Wright said. "Changes in bodily functions - nervous system, immune function - need to occur for you to feel these things. It is possible that similar processes are going on more locally, say in the lungs, which over many years may cause inflammation that affects lung function." (www.nytimes.com/2006/09/19/health/19host.html) No trecho do terceiro parágrafo "...the possibility that poor lung function led to hostility rather than the other way around is unlikely." a expressão RATHER THAN significa, em português,
AD 1 IAIC, a multilateral financial 3institution specialized in small and medium size private companies ____ Latin America and the Caribbean, currently has a job opening ____ the position of Accounting Officer. For information ____ the position, application instruction and 4deadlines, please refer to http://www.iaic.int. AD 2 Ranked among the leading business schools in the world, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge is distinguished by the innovative, international and collaborative 5ethos that makes Cambridge 1a very rewarding place to work, discover and learn. 2Due to the success of the school, we are looking to recruit lecturers in the following fields: - Operations Management - Marketing - Management Science We offer a competitive 6package of benefits. Further 7particulars and an application form are available from www.jbs.cam.ac.uk/jobs. The Economist. Sept. 20-26, 2008. p.113. The words that correctly complete the blanks in AD 1 are, respectively,
Escolha a alternativa para, respectivamente, completar as lacunas nas orações abaixo: I. I am sure I saw her putting her diary _____ her pocket. II. Are the house keys _____ the desk? III. How could the cat climb _____ the roof?
What is a prepaid water meter? There are several types of prepaid water meters but the idea behind them is the same. 2If you cannot pay upfront, you are unable to access water. 3Water from prepaid water meters typically costs more than water billed from the utility. As a result, those in most need are denied access to water. In the United States, the typical prepaid water meter is used in areas without access to water infrastructure. 4The users are poor, often immigrant workers, who travel long distances to collect water from the meters. 5To get water you drop quarters into the slot and place your 1bucket at the faucet. A similar type of meter has been used in South Africa where prepaid water meters replaced previous free communal standpipes in rural townships. The meter worked by inserting a plastic card with a chip that could be bought for R60 (US$9). In order to get more water, money can be added to the card at a store. Other types of prepaid water meters are used in individual homes - this system was used in the United Kingdom some time ago. Source: http://www.citizen.org/cmep/Water/humanright/meter/index.cfm The alternative which contains the prepositions that best complete the sentences below is: Prepaid meters have been launched with the aim _________ improving water service; however, they might be a problem _________ those who cannot afford paying _________ water services.
'Without Fear of Be Happy' (Sem medo de ser feliz) é o título, em inglês que um periódico paulista atribuiu ao livro do jornalista americano Ken Silverstein sobre a campanha de Lula à Presidência da República em 1989. Examinando o título, você diria que
LONDON IN YOUR POCKET Smartphone applications are transforming the tourism experience. The latest development is called Streetmuseum, or “the museum in your pocket.” It can be downloaded __( I )__ any Iphone or Android tablet and it enables you to explore the streets of London, both past and present. Streetmuseum unites 200 images __( II )__ the Museum of London collection with actual locations __( III )__ the capital. It uses the smartphone’s geo-tagging facility: as you walk the streets of London, satellite technology will give the phone’s “geoposition.” The phone will produce an image of that place in the past and you can compare this with what you see there today. So far the app has been downloaded by __( IV )__ 150,000 people around the world. SKYLINE The collection shows how much the London skyline has changed __(V)__ recent decades. Until 1962 St Paul’s Cathedral (which was completed in 1710 and is 110 metres high) was London’s tallest building. Today that honour goes to “One Canada Square,” the Canary Wharf Tower in the Docklands. It is 230 metres high, but it will soon be overtaken __( VI )__ the 87-storey tower “Shard London Bridge,” which will be 310 metres high. Designed by architect Renzo Piano, it should be completed in May. The prepositions that properly fill in blanks I, II, III, IV, V and VI, in the text,
The small Turkish town of Kuşköy, tucked into an isolated valley on the rainy, mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, looks ........ like the other villages in the region. Kuşköy is remarkable not for how it looks but for how it sounds: here, the roar of the water is ........ accompanied by loud, lilting whistles – the distinctive tones of the local language. Over the past half-century, linguists and reporters, curious about what locals call “bird language,” have occasionally struggled up the footpaths and dirt roads that lead to Kuşköy. So its thousand or so residents were not surprised when biopsychologist Onur Güntürkün showed up and asked them to participate in a study. Whistled languages, although unusual, have been ........ for centuries. Most of the examples that have been documented arose in places where it might otherwise be hard to communicate at a distance. All are based on spoken languages: Kuşköy’s version adapts standard Turkish syllables into piercing tones that can be heard from more than half a mile away. How does the brain handle a language that renders words as something like music?Although neuroscientists have long understood that brain functions do not divide ........ between the left and right hemispheres, the former appears to play a consistently dominant role in our understanding of language regardless of whether the language is tonal or atonal, spoken or written, signed with the hands or clicked with the tongue. The right hemisphere, meanwhile, seems to govern our understanding of pitch, melody, and rhythm. Güntürkün tested this cranial division of labor with thirty-one volunteers, all fluent in both spoken and whistled Turkish, to listen to pairs of different syllables played simultaneously through headphones, one in each ear. When he gave them spoken Turkish, the participants usually understood the syllable played through the right speaker, suggesting that the left hemisphere was processing the sound. When he switched to whistled Turkish, however, the participants understood both syllables in roughly equal measure, suggesting that both hemispheres played significant roles in the early stages of comprehension. Although the technique used isn’t as precise as laboratory techniques, his results are tantalizing. “They tell us that the organization of our brain, in terms of its asymmetrical structure, is not as fixed as we assume.” “The way information is given to us appears to change the architecture of our brain in a radical way.” He now wonders whether people whose spoken-language comprehension is damaged by a left hemisphere stroke could learn to understand a whistled dialect, much as some people with stroke-damaged speech can communicate by singing. The opportunity to study whistled Turkish, however, is fading. In 1964, a stringer for the Times reported that children in Kuşköy were learning to communicate by whistling before they started school, and that both men and women regularly gossiped, argued, and even courted via whistle. Three years later, a team of visiting linguists observed that whistling was widely used in both the village and the surrounding countryside. But Güntürkün found that few, if any, young women had learned the language, and that, although some young men were fluent whistlers, they had learned the skill as teenagers, more out of pride than any practical need. In a small town filled with nosy neighbors, texting affords a level of privacy that whistling never did. Adapted from: NIJHUIS, M. The Whistled Language of Northern Turkey. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/. Accessed on August, 20th, 2015. Select the alternative which correctly fills in the blanks in lines
Encontram-se em destaque cinco termos ou expressões. Assinale a alternativa correspondente ao termo cujo emprego está incorreto. As observed in the unique orbits of cosmic dust particles, at small length scales, environmental forces such as solar pressure and the Loretz force can compete with gravity so significantly accelerate a body in space. We propose to employ recent advances in nanofabrication to create a new category of extremely small, low-cost, expendable spacecraft which capitalize on this scaling to enable propellantless propulsion. Such devices could open up new spacecraft mission opportunities, including distributed sensing, scientific research, exploration, and in-orbit inspection of larger satellites.
TWO RIVALS, TOGETHER ON 9/11 Their vitriol seems to be increasing by the day, but Senators John McCain and Barack Obama said on Saturday that they planned to make a rare joint appearance at ground zero for the seventh anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. The campaigns had already pledged to suspend their television advertising on Thursday, and Mr. McCain and Mr. Obama are scheduled to appear at a forum on national service at Columbia University that evening. The idea of displaying a broader sign of unity originated in a conversation between the two men late last week, aides said, after Mr. Obama, the Democratic nominee for president, called Mr. McCain to congratulate him on accepting the Republican nomination. “All of us came together on 9/11, not as Democrats or Republicans, but as Americans,” the candidates said in a joint statement. “In smoke-filled corridors and on the steps of the Capitol, at blood banks and at vigils, we were united as one American family. “On Thursday, we will put aside politics and come together to renew that unity, to honor the memory of each and every American who died, and to grieve with the families and friends who lost loved ones." ” The side-by-side appearance will be the first of several for Mr. McCain and Mr. Obama in the final two months of the campaign, including their three debates, the first of which will be on Sept. 26. Fonte: http://www.nytimes.com Assinale a alternativa incorreta.
Tracing the Cigarette’s Path From Sexy to Deadly By Howard Markel, MD In contrast to the symbol of death and disease it is today, from the early 1900s to the 1960s the cigarette was a cultural icon of sophistication, glamour and sexual allure – a highly prized commodity for one out of two Americans. Many advertising campaigns from the 1930s through the 1950s extolled the healthy virtues of cigarettes. Fullcolor magazine ads depicted kindly doctors clad in white coats proudly lighting up or puffing away, with slogans like “More doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette.” (...) In the 1980s, scientists established the revolutionary concept that nicotine is extremely addictive. The tobacco companies publicly rejected such claims, even as they took advantage of cigarettes’ addictive potential by routinely spiking them with extra nicotine to make it harder to quit smoking. And their marketing memorandums document advertising campaigns aimed at youngsters to hook whole new generations of smokers. (www.nytimes.com/2007/03/20/health. Adaptado.) No trecho do último parágrafo do texto – And their marketing memorandums document advertising campaigns aimed at youngsters to hook whole new generations of smokers. – a palavra to indica
I am happy to join ........ you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. In the process ........ gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom ........ drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. When we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every state and every city, we will speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will join hands and sing the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" Adaptado de: LUTHER KING JR., Martin. I have a dream. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 06 set. 2013. Assinale a alternativa que preenche, correta e respectivamente, as lacunas presentes no texto.
The Rebel Years In March 1957, Elvis purchased the Graceland estate in Memphis. The address today is: 3764 Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis, Tennessee 38116. The Colonial house is located _( I )_ a hill surrounded _( II ) _ fourteen acres _( III )_ land with a stand _( IV )_ mature trees, a barn and a tennis court. The estate is enclosed _( V )_ an eight-foot-high brick wall. The main entrance is a large iron gate _( VI )_ musical insignia. The house was built _( VII )_ tan Tennessee limestone and contained twenty-three rooms including five bedrooms. _( VIII )_ a spacious entry hall, the front part of the luxuriously appointed house comprises the living, dining and music rooms. Along the walls are large, white sofas. The focus of attention is the gilded concert grand piano. The curtains are white interlaced with gold thread. The shag rug is so thick that your shoes nearly disappear. At the back of the house are the recreation rooms, covering nearly the entire length of the house and about half of its breadth. The billiard room is dominated by a large pool table. The trophy room contains Elvis’s gold and platinum records. Upstairs is the bedroom suite and the guest rooms. The bedroom: navy-blue shag run, oversized white bed with built-in telephone, intercom, TV controls. After the bedroom come the study and the mirror-lined bath. Sixteen televisions are found throughout the house. Since June 7, 1982, Graceland has been open to the public for an admission fee ($16.00: April 1993). An average of 2,500 visit the house every day. Adapted from The Rebel Years by Lester Bangs The words that properly fill in blanks I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, in the text, are
Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum? By Laurence Peter, BBC News Some 2,500 migrants have drowned in the Mediterranean this year as overcrowded boats head for the coasts of Greece and Italy. The flow of desperate migrants from Syria and North Africa hoping to reach Europe is already much higher than in the same period in 2014. Germany, which receives __________the most asylum applications in the EU, is expecting 800,000 refugees to arrive this year. How big is the migration challenge affecting Europe now? The number of migrants reaching Europe by boat has risen dramatically this year, compared with the same period in 2014. The number arriving in Greece, in particular, has soared. The EU's border agency said that almost 50,000 migrants had arrived on the Greek islands in July alone, most of them Syrians. The number of migrants reaching Greece by sea had reached 158,000 by mid-August, according to the UN, overtaking the 90,000 who arrived in Italy by sea. The majority heading for Greece via the eastern Mediterranean route take the relatively short voyage from the Turkish mainland to the islands of Kos, Chios, Lesvos and Samos. The voyage from Libya to Italy is longer and more hazardous. Migrant deaths at sea this year passed 2,000 in August, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported. And of those, 1,930 died trying to reach Italy. A shipwreck off Italy's Lampedusa island on 19 April took an estimated 800 lives. So, more migrants – Syrians especially – are trying to reach Greece now, ___________ risking the Libya route. Since the beginning of the year some 340,000 migrants have been detected at Europe's external borders, Frontex says. That compares with 123,500 in the same period last year. (Retrieved and adapted from http://www.newstoday.com.bd/?option=details&news_id=2420633&date= 2015-08-30. Access on October, 1st, 2015) Select the alternative that adequately fills in the blanks in the text:
TEXTO 3 A THIRSTY PLANET A woman drops a bucket into a dry well in Africa. A Chinese family watches its home vanish beneath a new reservoir. An Australian farmer kicks the salt crust slowly poisoning his field. In all corners of the globe people face trouble with water. It is the tie that binds every living thing, as vital to life as air. Yet one third of the world’s people live in countries where water supplies often don’t meet demand; more than a billion lack access to clean drinking water altogether. Those numbers will drastically increase in the next 25 years as the population grows. It’s not that we’re running out – Earth is awash in water, continuously recycling the same amount it’s had for eons. But accessible fresh water in lakes, rivers, and aquifers, often called renewable water, is less than onetenth of one percent of all Earth’s water – and it rarely lies where it’s needed most. We’ve tapped half of it already, and many of the world’s great watersheds now suffer from pollution, overexploitation, and political conflict. Have you checked your water source lately? NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. Washington, D.C. Sep. 2002. Supplement. Assinale a alternativa INCORRETA:
TEST COULD WARN WOMEN OF EARLY MENOPAUSE Scientists have moved closer to devising a test that could warn women that they are going to undergo an early menopause. The blood test would identify those who are going to go through the menopause before the age of 35, years before it usually happens in a woman's early 50s. That process happens to around one in 20 women and can ruin dreams of motherhood. Scientists report today that they have made considerable progress in understanding the key role played in early menopause by four genes. The test that their findings help pave the way for could be of particular benefit to the growing number of women who put off having children until their 30s but then find that they cannot conceive. Researchers from Exeter University' Peninsula Medical School and the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) examined the four genes linked to early menopause. They compared 2,000 women who had been through it and 2,000 who had not. […] Fonte: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/oct/18/test-menearly-menopause (Acessado e adaptado em 18/10/10) Assinale a alternativa correta.
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