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The Genre of Autobiography and Autofiction Derived from three Greek words meaning “self”, “life” and “write”, autobiography is a style of writing that has been around nearly as long as history has been recorded. Yet, autobiography was not classified as a genre within itself until the late eighteenth century. In his book, Inside out, E. Stuart Bates offers a functional definition of autobiography as “a narrative of the past of a person by the person concerned”. That definition, however, is too broad for some literary critics. Many, such as Philippe Lejeune, wish to define the genre more narrowly: “(a) retrospective prose narrative produced by a real person concerning his own existence, focusing on his individual life, in particular on the development of his personality”. Despite disagreements concerning how inclusive the category of autobiography should be, there are characteristics that are common to the majority of autobiographical works. These features are the grammatical perspective of the work, the identity of the self, self-reflection and introspection. Most autobiographies are written from the first person singular perspective. The author, the narrator and the protagonist must share a common identity for the work to be considered an autobiography. This common identity could be similar, but is not identical. The self that the author constructs becomes a character within the story that may not be a completely factual representation of the author’s actual past self. In their book The voice within, Roger Porter and H. R. Wolf state that “truth is a highly subjective matter, and no autobiographer can represent exactly what happened back then, any more than a historian can definitively describe the real truth of the past”. Because the author cannot describe events objectively, even the most accurate autobiographies have fictional elements. The blurring of fiction and truth characteristic of autobiography has even led to the creation of a subdivision within the genre of autobiography that deals with fictionalized self-accounts. For this style of writing that blends characteristics of both fiction and autobiography, Serge Doubrovsky coined the literary term “autofiction”. The difference between traditional autobiography and the genre of autofiction is that autobiographers are attempting to depict their real life, while writers of autofiction are only basing their work upon real experiences. Writers of autofiction are not expected to be as historically accurate as possible as autobiographers are. According to Alex Hughes, authors of autofiction are saying “this is me and this is not me”. 1This sums up autofiction. Autofiction draws from the life of the writer with the addition of fictional elements to make the work more than just a life story. Autobiography is a popular genre. 2Writers of memoirs and life stories never lack an audience. People are interested in the actual lives of others and want to know about others’ pasts and feelings and desires. Autobiography is a way to organize the story of a life and reflect on the past in order to better understand the present. hubpages.com Writers of memoirs and life stories never lack an audience. People are interested in the actual lives of others (ref. 2) The semantic relationship between the two sentences above can be made explicit by the addition of following connective:
Poverty may hinder kids’ brain development, study says Reduced gray matter, lower test scores reported for poor children July 20, 2015 Poverty appears to affect the brain development of children, hampering the growth of gray matter and impairing their academic performance, researchers report. Poor children tend to have as much as 10 percent less gray matter in several areas of the brain associated with academic skills, according to a study published July 20 in JAMA Pediatrics. “We used to think of poverty as a ‘social’ issue, but what we are learning now is that it is a biomedical issue that is affecting brain growth,” said senior study author Seth Pollak, a professor of psychology, pediatrics, anthropology and neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The results could have profound implications for the United States, where low-income students now represent the majority of kids in public schools, the study authors said in background information. Fifty-one percent of public school students came from low-income families in 2013. Previous studies have shown that children living in poverty tend to perform poorly in school, the authors say. They have markedly lower test scores, and do not go as far in school as their well-off peers. To see whether this is due to some physical effect that poverty might have on a child’s brain, Pollak and his colleagues analyzed MRI scans of 389 typically developing kids aged 4 to 22, assessing the amount of gray matter in the whole brain as well as the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and hippocampus. “Gray matter contains most of the brain’s neuronal cells,” Pollak said. “In other words, other parts of the brain – like white matter – carry information from one section of the brain to another. But the gray matter is where seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech, decision making and self-control occur.” Children living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level – US$ 36,375 for a family of four – had 3 percent to 4 percent less gray matter in important regions of their brain, compared to the norm, the authors found. Those in families living below the federal poverty level fared even worse, with 8 percent to 10 percent less gray matter in those same brain regions. The federal poverty level in 2015 is US$24,250 for a family of four. These same kids scored an average of four to seven points lower on standardized tests, the researchers said. The team estimated that as much as 20 percent of the gap in test scores could be explained by reduced brain development. A host of poverty-related issues likely contribute to developmental lags in children’s brains, Pollak said. Low-income kids are less likely to get the type of stimulation from their parents and environment that helps the brain grow, he said. For example, they hear fewer new words, and have fewer opportunities to read or play games. Their brain development also can be affected by factors related to impoverishment, such as high stress levels, poor sleep, crowding and poor nutrition, Pollak said. This study serves as a call to action, given what’s already known about the effects of poverty on child development, said Dr. Joan Luby, a professor of child psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “The thing that’s really important about this study in the context of the broader literature is that there really is enough scientific evidence to take public health action at this point,” said Luby, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study. “Poverty negatively affects brain development, and we also know that early interventions are powerfully effective,” Luby said. “They are more effective than interventions later in life, and they also are cost-effective.” (www.nlm.nih.gov. Adaptado.) No trecho do quarto parágrafo “To see whether this is due to some physical effect that poverty might have on a child’s brain”, a expressão em destaque introduz uma
Espcex (Aman) 2014
Empirically Based Leadership A significant area of interest within the US Army empirical literature on leadership is emotional Intelligence (EI), which in recent years has been the focus of considerable attention in relationship to leadership efficacy. Emotional intelligence Involves an awareness of one’s own emotions as well as the ability to control them, social awareness of others and their emotions, and the capacity to understand and manage relationship and social networks. In understanding others’ emotions, an important contributing factor to the success of the more effective military officers is their ability to empathize with their subordinates. In discussing empathy, EM (Field Manual) 6-22 defines it as “the ability to see something from another person’s point of view, to identify with and enter into another person’s feelings and emotions”. Empathy is not typically a quality that most soldiers would readily identify as an essential characteristic to effective leadership or necessary to producing positive organizational outcomes, but it is an important quality for competent leadership, especially as it relates to EI. Adaptado de McDONALD. Sean P. Military Review, Jan-Feb, 2013. In the sentence “...an awareness of one’s own emotions as well as the ability to control them...” the expression as well as has the same meaning as
Urban Development – Solid Waste Management Ask a mayor of a developing country city about his or her most pressing problems, and solid waste management generally will be high on the list. For many cities, solid waste management is their single largest budget item and largest employer. It is also a critical matter of public health, environmental quality, quality of life, and economic development. A city that cannot effectively manage its waste is rarely able to manage more complex services such as health, education or transportation. And no one wants to live in a city surrounded by garbage. As the world urbanizes, the situation is becoming more acute. More people mean more garbage, especially in fastgrowing cities where the bulk of waste is generated. We estimate that cities currently generate roughly 1.3 billion tonnes of solid waste per year; with current urbanization trends, this figure will grow to 2.2 billion tonnes per year by 2025 – an increase of 70 percent. Managing waste will also become more expensive. Expenditures that today total $205 billion will grow to $375 billion. The cost impacts will be most severe in low income countries already struggling to meet basic social and infrastructure needs, particularly for their poorest residents. Because it is such a major issue, waste management also represents a great opportunity for cities. Managed well, solid waste management practices can reduce greenhouse gas emission levels in a city, including short-lived climate pollutants that are far more potent than carbon dioxide. A city’s ability to keep solid waste out of drainage ditches can also influence whether a neighborhood floods after a heavy storm. (www.worldbank.org. Adaptado.) No trecho do último parágrafo – A city’s ability to keep solid waste out of drainage ditches can also influence whether a neighborhood floods after a heavy storm. –, a palavra whether pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por
Espcex (Aman) 2015
Military Officers Face a New Evaluation Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is leading important changes following recent scandals involving high-ranking officers. This is part of training and development programs for generals and admirals. They will include new courses to train the security detail, executive staffs and even the spouses of senior officers. Saying 1he was disturbed about the misconduct issues, General Dempsey said that evaluations of top officers needed to go beyond the traditional assessment of professional performance by superior officers alone. He said that he had decided the changes were necessary “to assess both competence and character in a richer way”. “You can have someone of incredible character who can’t lead their way out of a forward operating base because they don’t have the competence to understand the application of military power, and that doesn’t do me any good”, General Dempsey said. “2Conversely, you can have someone who is intensely competent in the skills of the profession, but doesn’t live a life of character. And that doesn’t do me any good.” General Dempsey said that regular professional reviews would be transformed from top-down assessments to the kind of “360-degree performance evaluation”, which includes feedback from subordinates, peers and superiors. For the new training programs, he said that while it may be impossible to prevent infractions, “most officers need to be reminded of the rules and regulations on a routine basis”. Teams of inspectors will observe and review the procedures of commanders and their staffs. The inspections will not be punitive, but will provide a “periodic opportunity for general officers to understand whether, from an institutional perspective, we think they are inside or outside the white lines”, he said. In addition, new programs will be instituted to ensure that a commander’s staff, and a spouse, are fully aware of military regulations. “In my 39 years in the military, I have learned that you are not a profession just because you say you are. You have to earn it and re-earn it and re-evaluate it from time to time”, General Dempsey said. Adapted from www.nytimes.com/2013/04/14/us In the sentence “Conversely, you can have...” (ref. 2), the word conversely indicates that the two situations described in the paragraph
Espcex (Aman) 2016
We’re so well educated – but we’re useless Record numbers of students have entered higher education in the past 10 years, but despite being the most educated generation in history, it seems that we’ve grown increasingly ignorant when it comes to basic life skills. Looking back on my first weeks living in student halls, I consider myself lucky to still be alive. I have survived a couple of serious boiling egg incidents and numerous cases of food-poisoning, probably from dirty kitchen counters. Although some of my clothes have fallen victim to ironing experimentation, I think I have now finally acquired all the domestic skills I missed out in my modern education. Educationist Sir Ken Robinson says that our current education system dislocates people from their natural talents and deprives us of what used to be passed from generation to generation – a working knowledge of basic life skills. Today’s graduates may have earned themselves distinctions in history, law or economics, but when it comes to simple things like putting up a shelf to hold all their academic books, or fixing a hole in their on-trend clothes, they have to call for help from a professional handyman or tailor. Besides what we need to know for our own jobs, we must have practical skills. We don’t grow our own crops, build our own houses, or make our own clothes anymore; we simply buy these things. Unable to create anything ourselves, what we have mastered instead is consumption. Sociologist Saskia Sassen argues that the modern liberal state has created a middle class that isn’t able to “make” anymore. I suggest that we start with the immediate reintroduction of some of the most vital aspects of “domestic science” education. Instead of only maths, language and history, we should create an interactive learning environment in schools where craftsmanship and problem-solving are valued as highly as the ability to absorb and regurgitate information. We need to develop children into people that not only think for themselves, but are also able to act for themselves. Adapted from http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/mortarboard/2013/feb/25/well-educated-but-useless In the sentence “Besides what we need to know for our own jobs, we must have practical skills.” (paragraph 4), the word besides can be replaced by:
Brazilian protest songs: “Peace without a voice is no peace but fear” 1I was born a year after the military coup in Brazil. The dictatorship that followed lasted from 1964 until 1985 - all my childhood and teenage years. But until I was 13 or 14 years old, 2I had no clue of what was going on in my country. I lived in a small town and my parents were not involved in politics. We listened to the radio, watched the news on TV and had a subscription to a national newspaper, but 3all the media were completely censored at that time. The fact that the newspaper was sometimes printed with a blank space or 4a cake recipe in the middle of the news never really caught my attention. It was always like that and I didn’t know any better. I had my first glimpse of what it really meant to have a military government and what kind of things were going on through songs. There was a song that I liked a lot, “O bêbado e a equilibrista”, 6although the lyrics didn’t make much sense to me: “My Brazil… / that dreams of the return / of Henfil’s brother / and so many people that left / on rocket fins”. Henfil was a famous cartoonist, but who was his brother? Who were the people who left? What were they singing about? This was in 1979 and I was 13. Thanks to this song by João Bosco and Aldir Blanc (sung by Elis Regina) and the questions I started to ask, I heard for the first time about all the artists, journalists and activists that had been persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and exiled. Many had disappeared or been killed by the military regime. This song became an anthem for the amnesty of political prisoners and activists in exile, which was announced later in that same year. In fact, due to the extreme censorship during the period of military dictatorship in Brazil, songs were one of the few ways to send political messages. Despite the tight surveillance of the censors, they flourished, giving a voice to the resistance movement. Like “Para não dizer que não falei das flores”, by Geraldo Vandré, which was interpreted as a call for armed struggle. Words and phrases with double meanings were used to escape censorship and persecution. The greatest master in this art was Chico Buarque de Holanda. 7His clever lyrics were often approved by the censors, who would only later realise what the songs were really about. But then, of course, it was too late. That was the case with “Apesar de você”, which was censored only after it had already become an anthem on the streets. 5At first sight, it appears to be a samba about a lover’s quarrel. Actually, it was a sharp critique of the authoritarian regime and an act of direct defiance aimed at the dictators. With the advent of democracy and the new freedom of expression in the late 1980s, protest songs played less of a role in Brazil for a while, but in the 1990s they once again became a powerful channel to voice social discontent. One of bands active in this period was O Rappa, with the song “A paz que eu não quero”. The fight against social inequality, urban and police violence and racial discrimination are the most common themes. 8Nowadays, the lyrics are explicit and the messages are clear. Mariângela Guimarães At first sight, it appears to be a samba about a lover’s quarrel. Actually, it was a sharpcritique of the authoritarian regime (ref. 5) If the two sentences above are rewritten as one, the result is:
Will we ever… understand why music makes us feel good? 19 April 2013 Philip Ball No one knows why music has such a potent effect on our emotions. But thanks to some recent studies we have a few intriguing clues. Why do we like music? Like most good questions, this one works on many levels. We have answers on some levels, but not all. We like music because it makes us feel good. Why does it make us feel good? In 2001, neuroscientists Anne Blood and Robert Zatorre at McGill University in Montreal provided an answer. Using magnetic resonance imaging they showed that people listening to pleasurable music had activated brain regions called the limbic and paralimbic areas, which are connected to euphoric reward responses, like those we experience from sex, good food and addictive drugs. Those rewards come from a gush of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. As DJ Lee Haslam told us, music is the drug. But why? It’s easy enough to understand why sex and food are rewarded with a dopamine rush: this makes us want more, and so contributes to our survival and propagation. (Some drugs subvert that survival instinct by stimulating dopamine release on false pretences.) But why would a sequence of sounds with no obvious survival value do the same thing? The truth is no one knows. However, we now have many clues to why music provokes intense emotions. The current favourite theory among scientists who study the cognition of music – how we process it mentally – dates back to 1956, when the philosopher and composer Leonard Meyer suggested that emotion in music is all about what we expect, and whether or not we get it. Meyer drew on earlier psychological theories of emotion, which proposed that it arises when we’re unable to satisfy some desire. That, as you might imagine, creates frustration or anger – but if we then find what we’re looking for, be it love or a cigarette, the payoff is all the sweeter. This, Meyer argued, is what music does too. It sets up sonic patterns and regularities that tempt us to make unconscious predictions about what’s coming next. If we’re right, the brain gives itself a little reward – as we’d now see it, a surge of dopamine. The constant dance between expectation and outcome thus enlivens the brain with a pleasurable play of emotions. (www.bbc.com. Adaptado.) No trecho final do segundo parágrafo – As DJ Lee Haslam told us, music is the drug. –, é possível substituir a palavra as, sem alteração de sentido, por
Healthy choices How do we reduce waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do? By Telegraph View 22 Aug 2014 Every new piece of information about Britain’s weight problem makes for ever more depressing reading. Duncan Selbie, the Chief Executive of Public Health England, today tells us that by 2034 some six million Britons will suffer from diabetes. Of course, many people develop diabetes through no fault of their own. But Mr Selbie’s research concludes that if the levels of obesity returned to their 1994 levels, 1.7 million fewer people would suffer from the condition. Given that fighting diabetes already drains the National Health Service (NHS) by more than £1.5 million, or 10 per cent of its budget for England, the impact upon the Treasury in 20 years’ time from unhealthy lifestyles could be catastrophic. 1Bad health not only impacts on the individual but also on the rest of the community. Diagnosis of the challenge is straightforward. The tougher question is what to do about reducing waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do. It is interesting to note that Mr Selbie does not ascribe to the Big Brother approach of ceaseless legislation and nannying. 2Rather, he is keen to promote choices – making the case passionately that people should be encouraged to embrace good health. One of his suggestions is that parents feed their children from smaller plates. That way the child can clear his or her plate, as ordered, without actually consuming too much. Like all good ideas, this is rooted in common sense. (www.telegraph.co.uk. Adaptado.) No trecho do segundo parágrafo (ref. 1), “Bad health not only impacts on the individual but also on the rest of the community”, a expressão “not only … but also” indica uma ideia de
Pediatric group advises parents to read to kids June 26, 2014 By Amy Graff Reading Go Dog Go to your 6 month old might seem like wasted time because she’s more likely to eat the book than help you turn the pages, but a statement released by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) this week says reading in the early years is essential. Reading out loud gets parents talking to their babies and the sound of an adult’s voice stimulates that tiny yet rapidly growing brain. In the statement, the academy advises pediatricians to tell parents to read books to their children from birth. Reading regularly with young children stimulates optimal patterns of brain development and strengthens parent-child relationships at a critical time in child development, which, in turn, builds language, literacy, and social-emotional skills that last a lifetime. Research shows that a child’s brain develops faster between 0 and 3 than at any other time in life, making the early years a critical time for babies to hear rich oral language. The more words children hear directed at them by parents and caregivers, the more they learn. While many babies are read Goodnight Moon and The Very Hungry Caterpillar every night before bed, others never get a chance to “pat the bunny.” Studies reveal that children from low-income, less-educated families have significantly fewer books than their more affluent peers. By age 4, children in poverty hear 30 million fewer words than those in higher-income households. These dramatic gaps result in significant learning disadvantages that persist into adulthood. The AAP hopes the new guidelines will encourage all parents to start reading from day one. Research shows that when pediatricians talk with parents about reading, moms and dads are more likely to fill their home with books and read. Also, to help get more parents reading, the AAP is partnering with organizations such as Scholastic and Too Small to Fail to help get reading materials to new families who need books the most. This is the first time the AAP has made a recommendation on children’s literary education and it seems the timing might be just right as more and more parents are leaning on screens and electronic gadget to occupy their babies. “The reality of today’s world is that we’re competing with portable digital media,” Dr. Alanna Levine, a pediatrician in Orangeburg, N.Y., told The New York Times. “So you really want to arm parents with tools and rationale behind it about why it’s important to stick to the basics of things like books.” http://blog.seattlepi.com. Adaptado. No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “that tiny yet rapidly growing brain”, o termo em destaque indica
Nobel winner Malala opens school for Syrian refugees Sylvia Westall July 13, 2015 Bekaa Valley, Lebanon Malala Yousafzai, the youngest winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, celebrated her 18th birthday in Lebanon on Sunday by opening a school for Syrian refugee girls and called on world leaders to invest in “books not bullets”. Malala became a symbol of defiance after she was shot on a school bus in Pakistan in 2012 by the Taliban for advocating girls’ rights to education. She continued campaigning and won the Nobel in 2014. “I decided to be in Lebanon because I believe that the voices of the Syrian refugees need to be heard and they have been ignored for so long,” Malala told Reuters in a schoolroom decorated with drawings of butterflies. The Malala Fund, a non-profit organization that supports local education projects, provided most of the funding for the school, set up by Lebanon’s Kayany Foundation in the Bekaa Valley, close to the Syrian border. The Kayany Foundation, established by Syrian Nora Joumblatt in response to Syria’s refugee crisis, has already completed three other new schools to give free education to Syrian children in Lebanon. The Malala school can welcome up to 200 girls aged 14 to 18. “Today on my first day as an adult, on behalf of the world’s children, I demand of leaders we 1must invest in books 2instead of bullets,” Malala said in a speech. Lebanon is home to at least 1.2 million of the 4 million refugees that have fled Syria’s war to neighboring countries. There are about 500,000 Syrian school-age children in Lebanon, but only a fifth are in formal education. “We are in danger of losing generations of young Syrian girls due to the lack of education,” Joumblatt said in a speech at the opening of the school. “Desperate and displaced Syrians are increasingly seeing early marriage as a way to secure the social and financial future of their daughters. We need to provide an alternative: Keep young girls in school instead of being pressured into wedlock.” Lebanon, which allows informal settlements on land rented by refugees, says it can no longer cope with the influx from Syria’s four-year conflict. More than one in four people living in Lebanon is a refugee. The United Nations says the number of Syrian refugees in neighboring countries is expected to reach 4.27 million by the end of the year. “In Lebanon as well as in Jordan, an increasing number of refugees are being turned back at the border,” Malala said. “This is inhuman and this is shameful.” Her father Ziauddin said he was proud she was carrying on her activism into adulthood. “This is the mission we have taken for the last 8-9 years. A small moment for the education of girls in Swat Valley: it is spreading now all over the world,” he said. (www.reuters.com. Adaptado.) A expressão “instead of” (ref. 2) indica uma ideia de:
Will we ever… understand why music makes us feel good? 19 April 2013 Philip Ball No one knows why music has such a potent effect on our emotions. But thanks to some recent studies we have a few intriguing clues. Why do we like music? Like most good questions, this one works on many levels. We have answers on some levels, but not all. We like music because it makes us feel good. Why does it make us feel good? In 2001, neuroscientists Anne Blood and Robert Zatorre at McGill University in Montreal provided an answer. Using magnetic resonance imaging they showed that people listening to pleasurable music had activated brain regions called the limbic and paralimbic areas, which are connected to euphoric reward responses, like those we experience from sex, good food and addictive drugs. Those rewards come from a gush of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. As DJ Lee Haslam told us, music is the drug. But why? It’s easy enough to understand why sex and food are rewarded with a dopamine rush: this makes us want more, and so contributes to our survival and propagation. (Some drugs subvert that survival instinct by stimulating dopamine release on false pretences.) But why would a sequence of sounds with no obvious survival value do the same thing? The truth is no one knows. However, we now have many clues to why music provokes intense emotions. The current favourite theory among scientists who study the cognition of music – how we process it mentally – dates back to 1956, when the philosopher and composer Leonard Meyer suggested that emotion in music is all about what we expect, and whether or not we get it. Meyer drew on earlier psychological theories of emotion, which proposed that it arises when we’re unable to satisfy some desire. That, as you might imagine, creates frustration or anger – but if we then find what we’re looking for, be it love or a cigarette, the payoff is all the sweeter. This, Meyer argued, is what music does too. It sets up sonic patterns and regularities that tempt us to make unconscious predictions about what’s coming next. If we’re right, the brain gives itself a little reward – as we’d now see it, a surge of dopamine. The constant dance between expectation and outcome thus enlivens the brain with a pleasurable play of emotions. (www.bbc.com. Adaptado.) No trecho do último parágrafo – The constant dance between expectation and outcome thus enlivens the brain with a pleasurable play of emotions. –, a palavra thus pode ser corretamente substituída, mantendo-se o sentido, por
Healthy choices How do we reduce waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do? By Telegraph View 22 Aug 2014 Every new piece of information about Britain’s weight problem makes for ever more depressing reading. Duncan Selbie, the Chief Executive of Public Health England, today tells us that by 2034 some six million Britons will suffer from diabetes. Of course, many people develop diabetes through no fault of their own. But Mr Selbie’s research concludes that if the levels of obesity returned to their 1994 levels, 1.7 million fewer people would suffer from the condition. Given that fighting diabetes already drains the National Health Service (NHS) by more than £1.5 million, or 10 per cent of its budget for England, the impact upon the Treasury in 20 years’ time from unhealthy lifestyles could be catastrophic. 1Bad health not only impacts on the individual but also on the rest of the community. Diagnosis of the challenge is straightforward. The tougher question is what to do about reducing waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do. It is interesting to note that Mr Selbie does not ascribe to the Big Brother approach of ceaseless legislation and nannying. 2Rather, he is keen to promote choices – making the case passionately that people should be encouraged to embrace good health. One of his suggestions is that parents feed their children from smaller plates. That way the child can clear his or her plate, as ordered, without actually consuming too much. Like all good ideas, this is rooted in common sense. (www.telegraph.co.uk. Adaptado.) No trecho do quarto parágrafo (ref. 2), “Rather, he is keen to promote choices”, o termo em destaque equivale, em português, a
How can consumers find out if a corporation is “greenwashing” environmentally unsavory practices? In essence, greenwashing involves falsely conveying to consumers that a given product, service, company or institution factors environmental responsibility into its offerings and/or operations. CorpWatch, a non-profit organization dedicated to keeping tabs on the social responsibility (or lack thereof) of U.S.-based companies, characterizes greenwashing as “the phenomena of socially and environmentally destructive corporations, attempting to preserve and expand their markets or power by posing as friends of the environment.” One of the groups leading the charge against greenwashing is Greenpeace. “Corporations are falling all over themselves,” reports the group, “to demonstrate that they are environmentally conscious. The average citizen is finding it more and more difficult to tell the difference between those companies genuinely dedicated to making a difference and those that are using a green curtain to conceal dark motives.” Greenpeace launched its Stop Greenwash campaign in 2009 to call out bad actors and help consumers make better choices. The most common greenwashing strategy, the group says, is when a company touts an environmental program or product while its core business is inherently polluting or unsustainable. Another involves what Greenpeace calls “ad bluster”: using targeted advertising or public relations to exaggerate a green achievement so as to divert attention from actual environmental problems – or spending more money bragging about green behavior than on actual deeds. In some cases, companies may boast about corporate green commitments while lobbying behind the scenes against environmental laws. Greenpeace also urges vigilance about green claims that brag about something the law already requires: “For example, if an industry or company has been forced to change a product, clean up its pollution or protect an endangered species, then uses Public Relations campaigns to make such action look proactive or voluntary.” For consumers, the best way to avoid getting “greenwashed” is to be educated about who is truly green and who is just trying to look that way to make more money. Look beyond advertising claims, read ingredient lists or ask employees about the real information on their company’s environmental commitment. Also, look for labels that show if a given offering has been inspected by a reliable third-party. For example, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Certified Organic label can only go on products that meet the federal government’s organic standard. Just because a label says “made with organic ingredients” or “all-natural” does not mean the product qualifies as Certified Organic, so be sure to look beyond the hype. (www.scientificamerican.com. Adaptado.) No trecho do quarto parágrafo – to exaggerate a Green achievement so as to divert attention –, a expressão so as equivale, em português, a
Air strikes in Iraq A time to act by Lexington OVERCOMING his deep wariness of overseas entanglements, President Barack Obama has authorised American generals to launch air strikes in Iraq against the fanatical jihadists of the Islamic State (IS). The first strike was carried out on August 8th within 12 hours of the president’s announcement, and involved the bombing of a mobile IS artillery piece near Erbil, capital of the autonomous Kurdish region in the country’s north. Seeking to reassure a war-weary public, the president described two tightly defined missions that would trigger air attacks. First, the president told his public in a late-night address from the White House, warplanes would strike convoys of IS fighters if they threaten either American diplomats and troops stationed in Erbil or Baghdad. Second, air strikes might be used to break an IS siege of thousands of civilians from the minority Yazidi sect, who have been trapped in mountains near the city of Sinjar without food and water, facing threats of mass slaughter from IS forces waiting below. American transport planes dropped bundles of food and water onto the Sinjar mountains, with Kurdish peshmerga fighters on a nearby hilltop able to report that most were safely received — though more will doubtless be needed. Mr Obama cast the operations in glowingly humanitarian terms. America cannot and should not intervene in every crisis around the world, he said. But when America has a mandate, as it does in this case, after being asked for help by the Iraqi government, and when it has “the unique capabilities to help avert a massacre”, then his country could not “turn a blind eye”. Aug 8th 2014 | www.economist.com The underlined conjunction though in the 4th paragraph of the text could be replaced in the sentence, without changing its structure, by
EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT 1 Critics who say the European Union has been tipped into inaction by the euro crisis are mistaken. Despite it, policymaking in such areas as competition, energy, the single market and telecoms carries on. And on July 1st the club will admit its 28th member, Croatia. 2 To many this means that the western Balkans must eventually join the club, so membership talks continue with Montenegro and will open next year with Serbia. But further negotiations with Turkey, already almost frozen, have at German insistence been put off until October, because of the Turks' crackdown on protesters. And nobody even raises the possible accession of Moldova, Ukraine or the Caucasus. 3 This is a mistake. Enlargement has been the EU's most successful policy by far. The hope of membership was crucial in fostering and smoothing the transition to democracy, first in Greece, Spain and Portugal and later across large parts of eastern Europe. The lure of joining the rich democrats' club led countries into social and constitutional reform and persuaded them to free statist economies. The results benefited not just new members, but existing ones, too. 4 Those who oppose further enlargement offer several arguments. The EU club is already too large to function well, they say, and is anyway in too big a mess to afford new distractions. Some countries were let in before their institutions were sufficiently developed (Romania and Bulgaria in 2007), or with unresolved territorial disputes (Cyprus, 2004). Hungary (also 2004) has regressed in its democracy. Others, like Turkey, are not really European at all. Public opinion is against more expansion, partly because of rising resistance to large-scale immigration. Potential candidates from the east are too big (Ukraine), too poor (Moldova), too Muslim (Turkey again), too autocratic (Azerbaijan)-or some combination of the above. 5 Yet all these points have answers. Decision-making has not suffered from enlargement: policy squabbles are mostly among older members, not between old and new. Romania and Bulgaria may indeed have joined too soon, but the admission criteria have been toughened since they signed up. Countries with frozen conflicts should be told to resolve them before they join and not after. Hungary is being pressured back into line albeit with difficulty. Turkey was accepted as a European country at least as far back as 1963, when it signed an association agreement. 6 Clearly, people in the EU are worried about immigration. But it will be decades before many of these countries can join, and even then they will have long, potentially unlimited, transition periods before enjoying full free movement of labour. Size, poverty and religion have never stood in the way of membership and should not suddenly become obstacles now. Democracy and the rule of law remain fundamental requirements for the EU-indeed, this is precisely what gives it such powerfull everage over would-be members. Adapted from The Economist, lune 29'h, 2013 ln paragraph 1, "it" in the phrase "Despite it ... " most likely refers to which af the following?
Tracing the Cigarette’s Path From Sexy to Deadly By Howard Markel, MD In contrast to the symbol of death and disease it is today, from the early 1900s to the 1960s the cigarette was a cultural icon of sophistication, glamour and sexual allure – a highly prized commodity for one out of two Americans. Many advertising campaigns from the 1930s through the 1950s extolled the healthy virtues of cigarettes. Fullcolor magazine ads depicted kindly doctors clad in white coats proudly lighting up or puffing away, with slogans like “More doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette.” Early in the 20th century, opposition to cigarettes took a moral rather than a health-conscious tone, especially for women who wanted to smoke, although even then many doctors were concerned that smoking was a health risk. (...) (www.nytimes.com/2007/03/20/health. Adaptado.) No trecho do terceiro parárafo do texto – … although even then many doctors were concerned that smoking was a health risk. – a palavra although significa, em português,
CHINA’S NEW SEX SYMBOLS BY ISAAC STONE FISH ASIA IN THE CATEGORY of the world’s sexiest politicians, China’s dour communist apparatchiks1 would seem to be far behind America’s legendary ladies’ men presidents and Europe’s bunga-bunga leaders. But a survey released in December by the All-China Women’s Federation found that a Middle Kingdom mandarin is the top pick for an ideal partner among Chinese women. (...) There’s also the growing reputation of Chinese government officials as a particularly virile lot. China’s state-owned press often titillates readers with tales of bureaucratic sex scandals: in one major story last year, a provincial tobacco-bureau chief’s diary was leaked online, with page after page of prurient details about his trysts2 with young beauties (including fellow government employees). The public’s reaction as generally sympathetic to the cad. One prominent blogger maintained the bureau chief was a good official because he managed to spend some time with his wife despite the womanizing, took less than $10,000 in bribes, and didn’t visit prostitutes. In other words, a real catch. In a survey on the blogger’s site, almost all the more than 100,000 respondents thought the official should keep his job. That’s sex appeal – and popular appeal. apparatchiks1: burocratas do partido comunista chinês trysts2: encontros secretos No último parágrafo do texto, a preposição despite empregada em − despite the womanizing − pode ser substituída por
FIFTY YEARS OF BOSSA NOVA (...) In Rio de Janeiro today, Bossa Nova has been supplanted by other genres, notably other samba variations and US-style hip-hop or rock. But, it can still be heard, a persistent note characterizing Brazil’s iconically beautiful seaside city. “Today, there are a lot more albums than 40 years ago. It (Bossa Nova) is not at the top of the charts, but it is still a style picked up by people of all ages,” said Ruy Castro, an author of several books on music. Lyra, the singer and composer who appeared in Carnegie Hall 46 years ago, was less generous. “If somebody asks me today where they can hear Bossa Nova in Rio, I say ‘nowhere’. The music is more popular in Japan and Europe than in Brazil,” he said. (http://music.ndtv.com/story. August 17, 2008. Adaptado.) No trecho do último parágrafo — But, it can still be heard, a persistent note characterizing Brazil’s iconically beautiful seaside city. —, a palavra but pode ser substituída, sem alterar o sentido, por
English sculptor Anish Kapoor, one of the greatest active artists in our time, was born in India in 1954. Having built an impressive oeuvre over the past three decades, today Kapoor stands out as a sculptor in the strictest sense of the word: he has introduced sculpture in a new aesthetic and technical scale by incorporating techniques – appropriated from architecture, aeronautics, and the heavy industry – to the support. Anish Kapoor’s forms and sculptures are apparently deceiving; they seem quite simple in terms of form, yet they convey, each of them, a dizzying complexity of natural elements, technique, aesthetic and finishing. Brazilian poet Antonio Cicero once told me that finishing accounts for 50% of a poetic creation. I have become deeply aware of this fact. In Kapoor’s work, it accounts for even more. For example, When I am Pregnant, is a work shrouded by a thin and fastidiously finished layer of plaster; it is a subtle protuberance on the wall, enunciating a bulging form that in itself heralds creation and the sublime. It is art, wanting to be born. (Source: Cultural Project of Banco do Brasil, 2006) According to the ideas in the text, the word that adequately completes the sentence “Kapoor’s work is apparently simple; __________, it actually contains rich complexity” is
ANOTHER REASON TO CHOOSE A MATE WISELY By Nicholas Bakalar Happily married people tend to have lower blood pressure than their single peers, but being single may be healthier than being unhappily married, a new study suggests. The study, published on March 20 in The Annals of Behavioral Medicine, sampled 303 generally healthy men and women, 204 married and 99 single. Each responded to questions about marital quality, social support and mental health. Scales were used to rate stress and life satisfaction. (...) People whose blood pressure does not dip during sleep are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, according to Julianne HoltLunstad, the lead author and an assistant professor of psychology at Brigham Young University. On average, the unhappily married had higher daytime and 24-hour blood pressure readings than single people. Having a wide social network had no effect on the trends for either married or single people. But marital satisfaction was significantly associated with satisfaction with life, lower stress, less depression and lower waking blood pressure. “Just being married per se isn’t helpful,’’ Dr. Holt-Lunstad said, “because you can potentially be worse off in an unhappy marriage. So, choose wisely.’’ (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. April 1, 2008. Adaptado.) In the excerpt of the last paragraph — So, choose wisely. — the word so can be replaced, without changing its meaning, for
Sense and Sensibility (1995) (Based on Jane Austen‘s book) James Fleet – John Dashwood Tom Wilkinson – Mr Dashwood Emma Thompson – Elinor Dashwood Sometimes the Dashwood girls do not seem like sisters. Elinor is all calmness and reason, and can be relied upon for practical, common sense opinions. Marianne, on the other hand, is all sensibility, full of passionate and romantic feeling. True love can only be felt by the young, of course. And if your heart is broken at the age of seventeen, how can you ever expect to recover? (Retrieved and adapted from http://www.oupbookworms.com. Access on September 23rd, 2013) In the statement "Marianne, on the other hand, is […]", the expression in bold indicates:
Longevity: Habits May Extend Life Only So Much By Nicholas Bakalar August 8, 2011 The eating, drinking and exercise habits of extremely old but healthy people differ little from those of the rest of us, a new study has found. Gerontologists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine recruited 477 Ashkenazi Jews ages 95 to 112 who were living independently. The researchers took blood samples, did physical examinations and obtained detailed personal and medical histories from each participant. Then they compared them with 1,374 non-Hispanic white adults, ages 65 to 74, from the general population. For both men and women, consumption of alcohol, amount of physical activity and the percentage of people on low-calorie or low-salt diets were almost identical in the two groups. Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. The oldest women were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be obese. More men among the oldest were nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not significantly different among the women. ___43___ that it all depends on genes, and we might as well eat, drink and be merry? No, according to the senior author, Dr. Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “For most of us who ___44___ genes for longevity,” he said, “if you follow the healthy lifestyle the medical community has put forth, you are ___45___ to live past 80.” The study was published online last week in The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (www.nytimes.com. Adaptado.) No trecho do segundo parágrafo – Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. – a palavra although pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por
Harvard conducted one of the longest and most comprehensive studies of human development — the 75 year old Grant Study — that’s reached some fascinating conclusions regarding the recipe for leading a happy life. The sample group was comprised of healthy male Harvard college students who, over the course of their lifetime, agreed to meet with an array of scientists and researchers who measured their psychological, physical and anthropological traits. Though all identities are confidential, it was recently discovered that John F. Kennedy was a sample participant. Following these men through times of war, their careers, parenthood and old age, the Grant Study has amassed an exorbitant amount of data that deeply reflects the human condition. What can be concluded from seven decades of data? It is quite simple actually; warm relationships between parents, spouses, children and friends have the greatest impact on your health and happiness in old age. The study found that 93 percent of the sample group who were thriving at age 65, had a close relationship with a sibling when they were younger. As George Vaillant, the lead director of the study states, it can all be boiled down into five simple words: “Happiness is love. Full stop.” (Business Insider.) http://www.goodnet.org/articles/1055 (acesso em 10/06/2013) Assinale a opção cuja reescrita não altera o sentido de: “Though all identities are confidential, it was recently discovered that John F. Kennedy was a sample participant.” (linha 5)
Brazil to provide vocational education to poor families July 29, 2008 RIO DE JANEIRO – About 185,000 Brazilians will receive vocational education in September under a social program launched by President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva in 2003, the Brazilian government announced Monday. In his weekly radio program Breakfast with the President, Lula said that the program is aimed at giving people a chance to learn skills so that they will no longer depend on government’s monthly aid. The Bolsa Familia is a welfare program, which provides financial aid to 11 million families with their per capita monthly income less then 120 reais (75 U.S. dollars). Each family receives a monthly allowance of up to 182 reais (115 U.S. dollars), as long as their children attend school and take vaccines. The program benefits a total of 45 million people in the country, making it the largest conditional cash transfer program in the world. Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Fortaleza will be the first batch of cities to carry out the program. President Lula added that the Ministry of Education has signed an agreement with some largest vocational schools to help poor workers receive education. (http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-07/29/content_8832724.htm) No trecho do segundo parágrafo do texto – Each family receives a monthly allowance of up to 182 reais (115 U.S. dollars), as long as their children attend school and take vaccines. – a expressão as long as significa
Identity is about belonging, about what you have in common with some people and what differentiates you from the others. At its most basic it gives you a sense of personal location, the stable core to your individuality. But it is also about your social relationships, your complex involvement with others, and in the modern world these have become even more complex and confusing. Each of us lives with a variety of potentially contradictory identities, which battle within us ........ allegiance: as men or women, black and white, straight or gay, able-bodied or disabled. The list if potentially infinite, and so therefore are our possible belongings. Which of them we focus on, bring to the fore, “identify” with, depends on a host of factors. At the center, however, are the values we share with others. Identities are not neutral. ........ the quest for identity are different, and often conflicting values. By saying who we are, we are also striving to express what we are, what we believe and what we desire.(…) All this makes debates over values particularly fraught and delicate: they are not simply speculations ........ the world and our place in it; they touch on fundamental, and deeply felt issues about who we are and what we want to become. They also pose political questions: how to achieve reconciliation between our collective needs as human beings and our specific needs as individuals and members of diverse communities, how to balance the universal and the particular. These are not new questions, but they are likely, nevertheless, to loom ever-larger as we engage with the certainty of uncertainty that characterizes ‘new times’. The basic issue can be stated ........ simply: by what criteria can we choose between the conflicting claims of differences? To ask the question immediately underlines the poverty of our thinking about this. Can the rights of a group obliterate the rights of an individual? Should the morality of one sector be allowed to limit the freedom of others? To what extent should one particular definition of the good and the just prevail over others? These are ancient questions, but the alarming fact is that one still lacks a common language for addressing them, let alone resolving them. WEEKS, J. The Value of Difference. In: RUTHEFORD, J. ed. Identity, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990. p. 88. 1. Considere as propostas de reescrita do segmento The list is [...] infinite, and so therefore are our belongings. I - The list is [...] infinite and consequently our belongings are also infinite. II - The list is [...] infinite and the list of our belongings may also be infinite. III- The list is [...] infinite and hence our belongings are infinite, too. Quais poderiam substituir o segmento acima, sem prejuízo do sentido literal e da correção gramatical?
My heart is like a singing bird Whose nest is in a watered shoot; My heart is like an apple-tree Whose boughs are bent with thick-set fruit; Extract of ‘A Birthday’ by Christina Georgina Rossetti (1830-1894). The word like in the poem is used to show
What’s in a name? The trouble with lingo Remember the campaign in New York for garbage collectors to be called sanitation engineers? Near the top of the strike’s agenda was the matter of getting the respect due to the people doing such essential work. Unfortunately, the new euphemistic title clarified nothing about the work and by now is either simply not heard for what it means, or is used in moments of gentle disdain. A clearer term may have both generated the respect desired and withstood the test of time. Clarity and sincerity matter. Terms which mislead, confuse or cause offence can become a distraction from the real content of public debate. In the search for consensus, since public understanding is harder to change than terminology, changing the terminology might be a better place to start. No additional prejudice or emotion should be brought to a debate by the terminology used in it. Here are two examples. Genetic Engineering and Genetic Modification Despite the insistence of biotech scientists that genes of completely different species are no longer being mixed, the message isn’t being heard. They insist that they are now involved only in developments which simply hasten the natural processes of selective and cross breeding or cross pollination. As farmers and horticulturists have been doing exactly this, unquestioned, for years, they cannot understand public resistance. The problem may well be the terminology. In this context, the words “scientific” or “genetic” have been irreparably sullied. If “genetic engineering” has, in the public’s view, become synonymous with the indiscriminate mixing of genes, and if the softer label “genetically modified” hasn’t been able to shake off a perception of sinister overtones, these terms might as well be dropped − or left attached only to experiments in Dr. Frankenstein’s laboratory. Ideally, a new agricultural term would leave out the word “genetic” altogether: it seems to frighten the public. Assuming it described science’s benign genetic activities accurately, the term “productivity breeding” is not a trivial call for a euphemism; besides, it would probably encounter less public opposition. So, let’s have new terms for selective cross breeding by scientists who simply speed up the same process that is carried out in nature. Clean coal* If this new term was intended to be clear, it hasn’t worked. In “Politics and the English Language” (1946), George Orwell wrote that because so much political speech involves defending the indefensible, it has to consist largely of euphemism. He insisted that, in politics, these euphemisms are “swindles” and “perversions” left deliberately vague in order to mislead. Deliberate or not, “clean coal” is one of these. Aside from being a contradiction in terms, the name is misleading, creating the impression of the existence of a new type of coal. In fact, it is ordinary coal which has been treated to “eliminate” most of its destructive by-products, which are then buried. The whole process produces emissions. This, though, isn’t clear when it is simply labelled “clean coal”. The term just doesn’t seem sincere. It’s a red rag to any green. It’s not asking too much to expect the term describing these procedures to be more accurate. A clearer term would be less provocative. So, what’s in a name? A lot. There’s the possibility of confusion, prejudice, perversions and swindles. For the sake of fair debate, let’s mean what we say and say what we mean. SEEARGH MACAULAY www.londongrip.com * Coal: carvão The logical relationship between clauses establishes different notions. An example which expresses the notion of concession is indicated in:
A palavra SO em "So despite the extent to which loneliness affects nearly everyone at various times, it presents a challenge to researchers" expressa:
Universities Record Drop In Black Admissions By Michael Dobbs Washington Post Staff Writer Monday, November 22, 2004; Page A01 ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Despite winning a marathon Supreme Court struggle last year to continue using race as a factor in admitting students, the University of Michigan is reporting the smallest class of African American freshmen in 15 years. A similar decline in the number of incoming black students has been recorded at many state universities across the country, from California to Georgia to much of the Midwest. The trend has alarmed and puzzled college admissions officers, who place great importance on targeting and recruiting talented minorities. "You don't see many people of color in the dorms. I feel a little isolated," said humanities student Ashley Gilbert, one of 350 black freshmen enrolled this year at the University of Michigan's Ann Arbor campus, where there are 5,730 students in the entering class. The number of black students is down from 410 last year and nearly 500 in 2001. The pattern is by no means uniform - both the University of Maryland and the University of Virginia report steady numbers of African Americans enrolling - but it is sufficiently widespread to cause concern among university presidents and students alike. State flagship institutions appear to be experiencing the biggest declines, while some private universities and many community colleges and second-tier state schools are reporting an increase in minority enrollment. There is no single explanation for the drop in African American enrollment, officials at the University of Michigan and other colleges say. But one important factor is the unexpected fallout from the June 2003 Supreme Court decision, which required the University of Michigan and many other schools to change their entrance procedures to evaluate applicants individually rather than automatically award extra admissions points to minority students […]. (Disponível em: . Acesso em: 22 nov. 2004.) O trecho a seguir apresenta duas orações. Despite winning a marathon Supreme Court struggle last year. [...] the smallest class of African American freshmen in 15 years. Sobre essas orações, é correto afirmar:
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