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- 1. UNESP 2015No contexto do quadrinho, o termo “can” indica uma ideia de
- 2. UNIFESP 2013Work after eight months of pregnancy is as harmful as smoking, study finds Conal Urquhart and agencies July 28, 2012 Working after eight months of pregnancy is as harmful for babies as smoking, according to a new study. Women who worked after they were eight months pregnant had babies on average around 230g lighter than those who stopped work between six and eight months. The University of Essex research – which drew on data from three major studies, two in the UK and one in the US – found the effect of continuing to work during the late stages of pregnancy was equal to that of smoking while pregnant. Babies whose mothers worked or smoked throughout pregnancy grew more slowly in the womb. Past research has shown babies with low birth weights are at higher risk of poor health and slow development, and may suffer from a variety of problems later in life. Stopping work early in pregnancy was particularly beneficial for women with lower levels of education, the study found – suggesting that the effect of working during pregnancy was possibly more marked for those doing physically demanding work. The birth weight of babies born to mothers under the age of 24 was not affected by them continuing to work, but in older mothers the effect was more significant. The researchers identified 1,339 children whose mothers were part of the British Household Panel Survey, which was conducted between 1991 and 2005, and for whom data was available. A further sample of 17,483 women who gave birth in 2000 or 2001 and who took part in the Millennium Cohort Study was also examined and showed similar results, along with 12,166 from the National Survey of Family Growth, relating to births in the US between the early 1970s and 1995. One of the authors of the study, Prof. Marco Francesconi, said the government should consider incentives _____1_____ employers to offer more flexible maternity leave to women who might need a break before, _____2_____ after, their babies were born. He said: “We know low birth weight is a predictor of many things that happen later, including lower chances of completing school successfully, lower wages and higher mortality. We need to think seriously about parental leave, because – as this study suggests – the possible benefits of taking leave flexibly before the birth _____3_____ quite high.” The study also suggests British women may be working for _____4_____ now during pregnancy. While 16% of mothers questioned by the British Household Panel Study, which went as far back as 1991, worked up to one month before the birth, the figure was 30% in the Millennium Cohort Study, whose subjects were born in 2000 and 2001. (www.guardian.co.uk) In the excerpt from the third paragraph – may suffer from a variety of problems later in life –, the word may carries the idea of
- 3. G1 - EPCAR 2016CYBERBULLYING ON THE RISE Bullying among children and teenagers is not something new but it is getting more and more common by modern methods of communication. Cyberbullying happens when an adolescent is put in danger by another child or teenager by photos or text messages sent to cell phones or posted on social networks. Sometimes cyberbullies send mails with sexual comments or take passwords of other teenagers and log on to websites with false identities. Children also play Internet games and make fun of each other in many ways. A study by a Canadian University shows that 1half of the young people interviewed said that they suffer bullying. 2One of the reasons is the great use of cell phones over the past years. Today’s children are connected with each other electronically. They call friends every time they want or communicate with them on Facebook. 3Cyberbullying is getting extremely popular because teens can stay anonymous. 4Many adolescents act this way because they feel frustrated or angry and want to punish somebody for something that happened to them. 5At other times they do it just for fun or because have nothing else to do. 6Parents usually don’t know their child is a cyberbully. 7They perceive it just when the victim or the victim’s parents contact them. This kind of bullying is not as inoffensive as many people think. In some cases it can lead to suicide. 8Many countries have organized campaigns to inform adults and children of its dangers. 9There are a few ways to prevent cyberbullying. First, it is important to show children that they have to respect others and they are responsible for what they do. For victims it is important not to play the bully’s game or answer their emails and text messages. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers. Often schools get involved. 10They bring together the parents of victims and cyberbullies and talk with them. Cyberbullying does not always end at school. Often, parents go to the police and accuse the bullies. (Adapted from http://www.english-online.at/society/ cyberbullying/cyberbullying-on-the-rise.htm) “Cyberbullying is getting extremely popular because teens can stay anonymous” (reference 3). The underlined verb expresses
- 4. UPF 2015‘King County Kicks Off Bag Recycling Campaign With ‘Bus Full Of Bags’ In the sentence ‘All bags must be dry and clean with no food residue’, the expression ‘must’ indicates the individual who participates in the campaign:
- 5. FATEC 2012PSYCHOLOGY OF MONEY Want Happiness? Don’t Buy More Stuff — Go on Vacation. When it comes to spending money on things or experiences, the research is clear: doing brings more happiness than owning. By Gary Belsky & Tom Gilovich | July 21, 2011 Given that it’s vacation season for many folks, we thought it a good time to devote this Mind Over Money post to a brief discussion of what personal finance is ultimately all about. Some people, of course, really enjoy counting their money, deriving great satisfaction simply from watching their bottom line grow, often quite removed from any thought of what they might do with their riches. But for most of us, money is just a token for what we can do with it — pay the mortgage or rent, send kids to college, buy a TV or travel to Italy. And for nearly all of us, money is finite; there isn’t enough to do all we want, so we must be selective. That raises a crucial question: if we want to maximize the happiness or satisfaction we get from our money, how should we spend it? There’s been a lot of recent research on this subject, much of it conducted at Tom’s home institution, Cornell University. And the answer is clear. If you’re conflicted about whether to spend money on a material good (say, a computer) or personal experience (say, a vacation), the research says you’ll get much more satisfaction — and for longer — if you choose the experience. Most of us, it turns out, get more bang from the experiential buck. Indeed, when people are asked to recall their most significant material and experiential purchases over the previous five years, they report that the experience brought more joy, was a source of more enduring satisfaction and was more clearly “money well spent¨. This might seem counter-intuitive. After all, when faced with a trade-off between doing and buying, many people opt for the material good because “it will still be there” long after the experience would have been enjoyed. In one sense that’s correct: The material good lasts while the experience is fleeting. But psychologically it’s the reverse. We quickly adapt to the material good, but the experience endures in the memories we cherish, the stories we tell and the very sense of who we are. (http://moneyland.time.com Acesso em 25/08/2011. Adaptado.) No terceiro parágrafo do texto, o modal auxiliar might transmite uma ideia de
- 6. MACKENZIE 2005The man in the cartoon,
- 7. EPCAR (AFA) 2011Did you know? ... some interesting facts about African Wildlife Four of the five fastest land animals live in Africa – the cheetah (70mph), wildebeest, lion and Thomson’s gazelle (all about 50 mph). Butterfly Having a wingspan of only 1/2”, the smallest butterfly in the world is found in South Africa. It is known as the Dwarf Blue Butterfly. Chameleons Madagascar is the home of the world’s _________ as well as the _______ chameleons! Elephants The African elephant is the largest living land mammal. An elephant can weigh up to 6-7 tons and has no natural enemies for he is not a predator and there is no other animal large enough to challenge him. Did you know elephants drink up to 160 liters of water per day? An African elephant possesses such “manual” dexterity in his/her trunk tip that he/she can actually turn the pages of a book with it. Fish The only place are found is in Lake Tanganyika. Giraffes Did you know that the tongue of a giraffe can be ______________ 45 cm? Giraffes are 6 ft tall when they are born. Penguins South Africa has a penguin colony, which thrives thanks to the cold Antarctic currents on the west coast near the Cape. Adapted from Google/ The African Guide GLOSSARY: Dexterity – the ability to perform a difficult action quickly with the hands. Trunk – an elephant’s nose. The sentence “…he/she can actually turn the pages of a book with it.” means that an African elephant
- 8. PUCSP 2012Underground river 'Rio Hamza' discovered 4km beneath the Amazon Scientists estimate the subterranean river may be 6,000km long and hundreds of times wider than the Amazon Alok Jha, science correspondent guardian.co.uk Friday, 26 August 2011 Covering more than 7 million square kilometres in South America, the Amazon basin is one of the biggest and most impressive river systems in the world. But it turns out we have only known half the story until now. Brazilian scientists have found a new river in the Amazon basin – around 4km underneath the Amazon river. The Hamza river, named after the head of the team of researchers who found the groundwater flow, appears to be as long as the Amazon river but up to hundreds of times wider. Both the Amazon and Hamza flow from west to east and are around the same length, at 6,000km. But whereas the Amazon ranges from 1km to 100km in width, the Hamza ranges from 200km to 400km. The underground river starts in the Acre region under the Andes and flows through the Solimões, Amazonas and Marajó basins before opening out directly into the depths of the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon flows much faster than the Hamza, however, draining a greater volume of water. Around 133,000m3 of water flow through the Amazon per second at speeds of up to 5 metres per second. The underground river's flow rate has been estimated at around 3,900m3 per second and it barely inches along at less than a millimetre per hour. The Hamza was located using data collected inside a series of 241 abandoned deep wells that were drilled in the Amazon region by the petrochemical company Petrobras in the 1970s and 1980s. Elizabeth Tavares Pimentel and Valiya Hamza of the Department of Geophysics at Brazil's National Observatory led the work and presented their results last week at the International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysics Society in Rio de Janeiro. According to the researchers, the presence of the Hamza river might account for the relatively low salinity of the waters around the mouth of the Amazon. Professor Hamza said Pimentel's measurements represented preliminary work on the discovery of the new river, but Hamza said he expected to confirm the existence of the flow with additional measurements within the next few years. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/26/underground-river-amazon/print. Adaptado. No trecho do último parágrafo – According to the researchers, the presence of the Rio Hamza river might account for the relatively low salinity of the waters around the mouth of the Amazon. – a palavra might pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por
- 9. UFPE 2002"A QUICK DIP IN A DIRTY POOL" That's all it takes to expose you to all kinds of nasty microbes. What you _______ know before you jump in! As temperatures soar, the cool blue waters of a swimming pool can seem pretty inviting. _______ perhaps you should look twice before you take that dip. Thousands of Americans _______ get sick this season from the unsanitary condition of their pool water, according to the Centers for Disease Control. The last thing you want to think about when you're swimming is what tiny creatures might be swimming beside you. But the fact is that any pool _______ be contaminated with parasites and bacteria. _______ you're not careful, you could find yourself in the emergency room with a badly upset stomach!" (From "A Quick Dip in a Dirty Pool", Personal Time, Your Health, TIME, July 23, 2001, page 62) Choose the correct item to fill in the gaps.
- 10. UNESP 2016Genetically modified foods Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. Currently available GM foods stem mostly from plants, but in the future foods derived from GM microorganisms or GM animals are likely to be introduced on the market. Most existing genetically modified crops have been developed to improve yield, through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases or of increased tolerance of herbicides. In the future, genetic modification could be aimed at altering the nutrient content of food, reducing its allergenic potential, or improving the efficiency of food production systems. All GM foods should be assessed before being allowed on the market. FAO/WHO Codex guidelines exist for risk analysis of GM food. (www.who.int) No trecho do segundo parágrafo “All GM foods should be assessed before being allowed on the market.”, o termo em destaque pode ser corretamente substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por
- 11. PUCRJ 2013Are You A Digital Native or A Digital Immigrant? We all know that we are living in an increasingly technologically driven world. Living here in the heart of Silicon Valley I certainly feel it every day. In fact, I don’t think I know a single couple in my neighborhood, other than my wife and I, who don’t work in the technology field in some capacity. Our local companies are Facebook, Apple, Google, Yahoo, and so many venture capital firms that I can’t keep them straight. But you don’t have to live in Silicon Valley to feel that the world is getting more and more technology centered, focused, and driven. We can debate the pros and cons of this reality but 9we can’t deny that the world has changed very quickly in head spinning ways. Two recent comments led me to finally enter the 21st century 2by getting a smart phone this week, kicking and screaming. First, I mentioned to one of my undergraduate classes at Santa Clara University that I didn’t have a smart phone, but rather I had a 8dumb phone. 10My phone can make and receive phone calls and that’s about it. No email, internet, and so forth. 3So one of my students looked at me in an odd and curious way, like she was talking to someone from another planet, and stated in 11a matter of fact manner, “Professor Plante, even 2nd graders have smart phones.” Ouch! Second, 4I was talking with a producer at the PBS NewsHour who wanted me to do a live interview within a few hours of his call regarding some late breaking news about clergy sexual abuse, which is my specialty. I was out of the office and driving my car when he called and in 12a matter of fact manner he said that he wanted to send me some important information to my smart phone to best prepare me for the upcoming interview. When I told him that I couldn’t receive anything since I had a dumb phone and not a smart phone, there was a long silence. 1He then said he’d have to just read it to me over the phone as a Plan B. He wasn’t happy ... neither was I. 7In case you haven’t noticed, the 21st century is really upon us and to live in it one really does need to be connected in my view. Although I often consider myself a 19th or 20th century guy trapped in the 21st century we really do need to adapt. For most of us we are just living in a new world that really demands comfort with and access to technology. This notion of digital native vs. digital immigrant makes a great deal of sense to me. Young people in our society are digital natives. They seem to be very comfortable with everything from iPhones to TV remotes. Digital immigrants, like me, just never feel that comfortable with these technologies. Sure we may learn to adapt by using email, mobile phones, smart ones or dumb ones, Facebook, and so forth but it just doesn’t and perhaps will never be very natural for us. It is like learning a second language ... you can communicate but with some struggle. This has perhaps always been true. I remember when I was in graduate school in the 1980s trying to convince my grandparents that buying a telephone answering machine as well as a clothes dryer would be a good idea. They looked at me like I was talking in another language or that I was from another planet. 5Perhaps we have a critical period in our lives for technology just like we do for language. 6When we are young we soak up language so quickly but find it so much harder to learn a new language when we are older. The same seems to be true for technology. So, this week I bought my first smart phone and am just learning to use it. When questions arise, I turn to my very patient teenage son for answers. And when he’s not around, I just look to the youngest person around for help. So, what about you? Are you a digital native or a digital immigrant and how does it impact your life? Adapted from “Digital Native vs. Digital Immigrant? Which are you?” Published on July 24, 2012 by Thomas G. Plante, Ph.D., ABPP in Do the Right Thing http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/do-the-right-thing/201207/digital-native-vs-digital-immigrant-which-are-you retrieved on July 28, 2012 “We can’t deny” in “...we can’t deny that the world has changed very quickly...” (ref. 9) and “My phone can make” in “My phone can make and receive phone calls...” (ref. 10) express the ideas of, respectively:
- 12. PUCSP 2005THE VANISHING ART OF BRAZIL'S INDIANS By Alan Riding - The New York Times Saturday April 30, 2005 PARIS - Long before Jean-Jacques Rousseau idealized the "noble savage" in the late 18th century, the Brazilian Indian was entrenched in the French imagination. As early as 1505, just five years after the Portuguese discovered Brazil, the first Indian was brought to France. Then, in 1550, 50 Indians were imported to people a reconstructed Indian village in Normandy as a curiosity to entertain the royal court. But for French thinkers, the Indians also displayed unique qualities, notably the innocence of their nakedness, their generosity, their indifference to possessions and, yes, their cleanliness. And this led first Montaigne and later Montesquieu, Diderot and Rousseau to meditate afresh on the human condition. Then, in the mid-20th century, another Frenchman, Claude Lévi-Strauss, helped found modern anthropology through research carried out among Brazilian Indians. Now, in a sense, the Indians have returned to France, in a new exhibition called "Indian Brazil: The Arts of the Amerindians of Brazil". The show, which has been drawing crowds to the Grand Palais in Paris, runs through June 27 and also includes objects collected by Lévi-Strauss in the 1930s. It is the centerpiece of a lively program of Brazilian art, music, dance and movies called Year of Brazil in France. Still, compared with displaying, say, Mayan treasures, this is not an easy show to present. In 1500, Brazil's Indians were Stone Age hunters and fishermen living in small villages and never constituting what might be termed a civilization. They were certainly exotic, but they displayed no obvious wealth. As it happens, in recent decades, archaeologists have found evidence of more settled communities near the mouth of the Amazon, some dating back 12,000 years. Ceramic works, some 1,000 years old, have also been excavated. Thus, "Indian Brazil" opens with a surprising collection of pre-Columbian urns: some large vases decorated with abstract designs, several resembling human figures, others evoking real or imagined animals. The rest of this exhibition reflects a culture still alive, with objects distant from us in spirit, but not in time. Yet, just as those made of wood, bark, reeds, feathers, and animal skins are fragile, even ephemeral, so is this culture. The ancient stone sculptures of Mesoamerica will be around for centuries; the arts of Brazil's Indians may not. A última frase do texto "the arts of Brazil's Indians may not." significa que
- 13. UNESP 2014No trecho do primeiro quadrinho – This should be the last load –, a palavra should indica uma ideia de
- 14. ESPM 2015In the last strip the modal verb couldn’t could be replaced, without changing its meaning, by
- 15. ESPM 2014Calvin’s words in the last strip, could be replaced, without changing their meaning, by
- 16. UNITAU 1995Assinale a alternativa na qual se incluem a forma do futuro simples e a forma do presente perfeito contínuo da sentença a seguir: Two teams of 11 players attempt to guide an inflated ball into goal cages.
- 17. FUVEST 1978Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente as lacunas: I you as soon as my work .
- 18. UEL 1998Assinale a letra correspondente à alternativa que preenche corretamente as lacunas do texto apresentado. Imagine travelling directly ( I ) London and Paris with no connections to run for, no buses to board, no taxis to hail. In fact, the only thing you ( II ) to change is the tongue you speak upon arrival. That's exactly what you ( III ) experience aboard the high speed Eurostar passenger train. A lacuna (III) do texto é corretamente preenchida pela alternativa:
- 19. UNESP 1995Assinale a alternativa que preenche a lacuna da frase a seguir corretamente: He will ________ almost everything you ask him.
- 20. UNESP 1993Assinale a alternativa correta. I expect that she __________ arrive at about midnight.
- 21. UNCISAL 2016IT MUST HAVE BEEN LOVE It must have been love When you came here Dust to dust from above Sunshine moods in air All what life is for Star shines on going Live on for evermore In all its timeless glowing [...] It must have been dreams Coming now to its end [...] QUINN, Peter. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 16 nov. 2015. A função do auxiliar “must” na letra é de
- 22. PUC-MG 2005While global warming is being ignored by the political arm of the Bush administration, the citizens of Europe and the Pentagon are taking a new look at the greatest danger such climate change could produce for the northern hemisphere – a sudden change into a new ice age. What they're finding is not at all comforting: if enough cold, fresh water coming from the melting polar ice caps and glaciers of Greenland and flowing into the northern Atlantic will shut down the Gulf Stream, which keeps Europe and northeastern North America warm. The worst case scenario would be a return of the last ice age in 2 to 3 years and the mid case scenario would be a period like the "little ice age" of a few centuries ago that disrupted worldwide weather patterns leading to extremely cold winters, desertification, crop failures and wars. The warmth is the result of ocean currents that bring warm surface water up from the equator into northern regions that would otherwise be so cold that even in summer they'd be covered with ice. The current of greatest concern is called "The Great Conveyor Belt," which includes the Gulf Stream. It is driven by the greater force created by differences in water temperatures and salinity, as the North Atlantic Ocean is saltier and colder than the Pacific. If it stopped flowing today, the result would be sudden and dramatic. Winter would start in the eastern half of North America and all of Europe and Siberia, and never go away. Within three years, those regions would become uninhabitable and nearly two billion humans would starve, freeze to death, or have to relocate. And when might that happen? Nobody knows – the action of the Great Conveyor Belt in defining ice ages was discovered only in the last decade. Preliminary computer models and scientists suggest the change could happen as early as next year, or it may be generations from now. It may be starting right now, producing the extremes of weather we've seen in the past few years. What's almost certain is that if nothing is done about global warming, it will happen sooner rather than later. SPEAK UP, ed. 206, jul. 2004 (adapted). The word "will" conveys the idea of
- 23. UFRGS 2005Complete the sentence below with the best alternative. In the past, English cavaliers ________ swords while ________ on the left.
- 24. EPCAR 2011When football _____ professional in South Africa in 1959, 12 clubs broke from the amateur ranks. However, in the strict days of Apartheid, these pioneers _____ whites-only organizations and _____ today, all but a few, defunct. One of the survivors is Arcadia from Tshwane/Pretoria, an outfit that today competes in the amateur ranks and concentrates on junior football. Mark the alternative which completes the gaps from the text correctly.
- 25. PUC-PR 2006When Carlos has a headache, he ______ some tea.
- 26. UFPEL 2008BLOCKING OUT VIOLENCE OR BLOCKING OUT FREEDOM? In many countries around the world, governments __________ television broadcasting. Government officials preside over the industry and control what will be shown to the public. In other countries, this industry __________ freely and independently. Television stations can __________ whatever they want without government interference. For many people, this lack of government interference in the media symbolizes an important freedom: freedom of speech. The V-chip/ratings system __________ important questions related to this freedom. Parents, children, the broadcasting industry, and free-speech groups all have different opinions. Parents, disgusted with television programming, complain that too many shows are trashy and offensive, rather than wholesome and educational. Many feel that a V-chip/ratings system will protect their children from viewing inappropriate programs. Moreover, they are pleased that the government has finally forced the television industry to clean up the airwaves. Many parents do not think that the notion of a government controlled television ratings system is censorship. They mistrust the industry's ability to regulate itself. To them, 1it is like putting the fox in charge of the henhouse. So parents are hopeful. A parent of one child said, "Boy, I hope the new system will take here as well as it did in Canada." However, not everyone sees the ratings system as a panacea, a cure-all for the whole problem of TV violence. Teenagers in particular view the blocked-out shows as forbidden-fruit. The fact that they can't watch a particular show invariably makes them want to watch it even more. Broadcasters feel that the V-chip/ratings systems is only a quick technological fix. They worry that parents who use the V-chip will block out prime-time shows, profitable evening programs which serve as their bread-and-butter programming. Moreover, broadcasters don't trust the public to use the system. Even though parents say they want less sex and violence on TV, shows containing such scenes are often the most popular. Broadcasters think the public is hypocritical and doubt that any electronic blocking device or ratings system will actually be used. Supporters of freedom of speech, or First Amendment rights, are the loudest protesters against the V chip/ratings system. They can't swallow the idea of blocking out certain programs. For them, this system falls under the category of censorship. In the Telecommunications Act, the government ordered the television industry to establish a ratings system. The law also ordered television manufacturers to install blocking devices in all new sets. The FCC (Federal Communications Commission), a government agency, is responsible for approving the implementation of the V-chip/ratings system. It can reject the broadcasters' ratings system and set up its own. Free speech supporters feel that the government has ultimate power and control over what is shown on television. Therefore, they see this power as full-fledged censorship. NORTH STAR ADVANCED (Second edition) - Francis Boyd and Carol Numrich - Longman Press. Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a forma do verbo que completa, correta e respectivamente, as lacunas no primeiro parágrafo do texto.
- 27. CEFET-MG 2006Biodiesel and its benefits Biodiesel is a cleaner burning diesel replacement fuel made from natural, renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats. Just like petroleum diesel, biodiesel operates in compression-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% biodiesel (B20), mixed with petroleum diesel fuels, can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. These low-level blends (20% and less) generally do not require any engine modifications, however, users should consult their OEM and engine warranty statement. Biodiesel can provide the same payload capacity as diesel. Higher blends, even pure biodiesel, which is called 100% biodiesel, or B100, may be able to be used in some engines built since 1994 with little or no modification. However, engine manufacturers are concerned about the impact of B100 on engine durability. Additionally, B100 is generally not suitable for use in low temperature conditions. Transportation and storage of B100, however, require special management. Using biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These reductions increase as the amount of biodiesel blended into diesel fuel increases. The best emission reductions are seen with B100. The use of biodiesel decreases the solid carbon fraction of particulate matter since the oxygen in biodiesel enables more complete combustion to CO2, and reduces the sulfate fraction, while the soluble, or hydrocarbon, fraction stays the same or increases. Therefore, biodiesel works well with emission control technologies such as diesel oxidation catalysts which reduce the soluble fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction. Emissions of nitrogen oxides increase with the concentration of biodiesel in the fuel and the increase is roughly 2% for B20. Some biodiesel produces more nitrogen oxides than others, and some additives have shown promise in reducing the increases. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are nontoxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. Fats and oils are chemically reacted with an alcohol (methanol is the usual choice) to produce chemical compounds known as fatty acid methyl esters. Biodiesel is the name given to these esters when they’re intended for use as fuel. Glycerol (used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, among other markets) is produced as a coproduct. Biodiesel can be produced by a variety of esterification technologies. The oils and fats are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants. If free fatty acids are present, they can be removed or transformed into biodiesel using special pretreatment technologies. The pretreated oils and fats are then mixed with an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide). The oil molecules (triglycerides) are broken apart and reformed into methylesters and glycerol, which are then separated from each other and purified. Approximately 55% of the biodiesel industry can use any fat or oil feedstock, including recycled cooking grease. The other half of the industry is limited to vegetable oils, the least expensive of which is soy oil. The soy industry has been the driving force behind biodiesel commercialization because of excess production capacity, product surpluses, and declining prices. Similar issues apply to the recycled grease and animal fats industry, even though these feedstocks are less expensive than soy oils. Based on the combined resources of both industries, there is enough feedstock to supply 1.9 billion gallons of biodiesel under policies designed to encourage biodiesel use. This represents roughly 5% of on-road diesel used in the United States. Because little fossil energy is required to move biodiesel, it is a substitute or extender for traditional petroleum diesel, and special pumps or high pressure equipment for fueling are not needed. In addition, it can be used in conventional diesel engines, so special vehicles or engines to run biodiesel do not need to be purchased. Scientists believe carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Neat biodiesel (100% biodiesel) reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 75% over petroleum diesel. Using a blend of 20% biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 15%. Biodiesel also produces fewer particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide emissions, all air pollutants under the Clean Air Act. Since biodiesel can be used in conventional diesel engines, the renewable fuel can directly replace petroleum products; reducing the country’s dependence on imported oil. Biodiesel offers safety benefits over petroleum diesel because it is much less combustible, with a flash point greater than 150 °C, compared to 77 °C for petroleum diesel. It is safe to handle, store, and transport. FONTE: Disponível em: . Acesso em: 23 mar.2006. (adaptado) Glossário: OEM = montadora surpluses = excessos warranty statement = certificado de garantia All the correlations below between verb and idea are correct according to the text, EXCEPT:
- 28. CEFET-MG 2005Ultrasound Makes Waves In Space And On Earth Ultrasound techniques developed by NASA to examine International Space Station crewmembers may soon find another use helping treat medical emergencies on Earth. Non-physicians can readily learn the procedures. The procedures can provide an accurate diagnostic tool when coupled with Internet, telephone or wireless transmission of ultrasound images to remote experts. The technology was recently tested on members of the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League (NHL). The probability of a crewmember developing a serious medical condition increases on long-duration missions. Although X-ray and computerised tomography (CT) scans are routinely used by doctors to diagnose medical conditions on Earth, they are not available on the Station due to weight and power requirements. For these reasons, a 76-kilogram (168-pound) ultrasound machine is being evaluated on the Space Station to examine the medical condition of crewmembers. Ultrasound is a fast and safe technique that uses sound waves to gain information about medical conditions ranging from gallbladder disease to kidney stones. The ultrasound equipment in the Station’s Human Research Facility is capable of high-resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic. “I was impressed that even with the slight delay in transferring the video images to the ground, I was able to perform, with guidance from the ground team, imaging of my heart, carotid artery, kidney and bladder,” said NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson, a member of the fifth Station crew. “The remote application of these methods has very positive implications for long-duration spaceflight, as well as potential use here on Earth.” Dr. Scott Dulchavsky, chair of the Department of Surgery at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit and principal investigator for the ultrasound experiment, leads a team of NASA scientists. They developed a technique involving remote guidance of a minimally trained operator to acquire ultrasound images. The images are transmitted by satellite to the ground where radiologists can read them. “These ultrasound techniques will improve the chances of treating medical emergencies in space and on Earth,” Dulchavsky said. “Although we use ultrasound every day in trauma centres to diagnose injuries of the abdomen, we are encouraged that ultrasound can be used in many more medical conditions.” Portable ultrasound machines remotely, guided by experts, can be used to extend medical care into challenging areas such as remote rural or military locations. The Detroit Red Wings recently conducted a test of these techniques to diagnose player injuries in the team’s locker room rather than transporting athletes to Henry Ford Hospital for an X-ray, CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A portable ultrasound devine was placed in the team’s locker room and connected to an ultrasound workstation at Henry Ford Hospital. A radiologist, serving as the remote expert, worked with the NASA team to guide the Red Wings’ trainers performing ultrasound tests on players. The remote expert helped the trainers perform an ultrasound test on a shoulder, ankle, knee, hand and foot. The resulting high-quality images were transmitted to the hospital and could have been used to confirm or exclude injuries to these areas. “This trial demonstrated ultrasound can be used to enhance athletic medical care with minimal training and cost,” Dulchavsky said. “We are investigating satellite phone technology to allow the technique to be expanded for use on ambulances or at accident sites.” Disponível em: . Acesso em: 7 out. 2004. All the sentences below, extracted from the text, have the idea of ability, EXCEPT:
- 29. UEG 2005TEXTO 3 A DECISION FOR 2010 On which side of the counter will you be in June 2010? In an aquarium or in the ocean? People are scared by this proposition. They think it’s either too late, or too early, to make such a serious decision. The fact is that people have become unaccustomed to dreaming. They have lost the courage to place themselves in the future and, from there, look at the present. They still don’t understand the need to manage the present, with an eye on the future. Worse yet: their thinking is always based on a projection from the past. Most spend about 90% of the time remembering from where they came, 9% justifying where they are, and only 1% thinking about where they want to be. Well, let’s turn this pyramid upside down. It’s not important where you came from, or where you are, but where you want to be! Those who keep their eyes on the past are unable to move toward the ocean that awaits them, where they can swim with big strokes. They get comfortable, surround themselves with envious and pessimistic people, quash any initiative taken by one of their children, a student, or a subordinate to find the way to the ocean. They create rituals and rules in the aquarium, as though it were the size of the world. It’s not! What is this aquarium that holds most people prisoner? It may be a company, a position, or a manipulative boss. It could be a love relationship, a poorly drawn contract, or a credit card that holds us hostage to our debts. It could also be an unwanted event, an illness, or a catastrophe. But the aquarium is mainly what we carry inside ourselves: a mental model filled with values, beliefs, prejudices, standards and truths that end up blocking our way to the sea. The aquarium is inside us. We are our biggest competitor. The first step to freedom is to think about June 2010 and make this inner choice: aquarium or ocean? That’s the question. SOUZA, César. Ícaro Brasil, RMC Editora, n. 238, jun. 2004, p. 20. Assinale a alternativa INCORRETA.
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