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The Man Who Sold the Eiffel Tower Paris, 1925. World War I had finished and the city was full of people with cash looking for business opportunities. Victor Lustig was reading the newspaper one day and found an article about the Eiffel Tower. It said the tower was being neglected because it was too expensive to maintain. Lustig a great ‘business opportunity’ – he would sell the Eiffel Tower! Lustig wrote to six important businessmen in the city and invited them to a secret meeting in a well-known Paris hotel. He said he was a government official and he told them that he wanted to talk about a business deal. All six of the businessmen came to the meeting. At the meeting, Lustig told them that the city wanted to sell the Eiffel Tower for scrap metal and that he had been asked to find a buyer. He said that the deal was secret because it would not be popular with the public. The businessmen believed him, perhaps the Eiffel Tower was never planned to be permanent. It had been built as part of the 1889 Paris Expo, and the original plan had been to remove it in 1909. Lustig rented a limousine and took the men to visit the tower. After the tour, he said that if they were interested, they should contact him the next day. Lustig told them he would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer. One of the dealers, Andre Poisson, was very interested, but he was also worried. Why was Lustig in such a hurry? The two men had a meeting, and Lustig confessed that he wasn’t looking for the highest offer. He said he would give the contract to anybody – for a price. Poisson understood: Lustig wanted a little extra money “under the table” for himself. This was Lustig’s cleverest lie, because now Poisson believed him completely. Lustig sold Poisson a false contract for the Eiffel Tower – and on top of that, Poisson paid him a little extra money “under the table”. Lustig put all the money in a suitcase and took the first train to Vienna. Poisson never told the police what had happened – he was too embarrassed. After a month, Lustig returned to Paris and tried to sell the Eiffel Tower again, but this time somebody told the police and he had to escape to America. There, he continued his criminal career and finished his days in the famous Alcatraz prison. (Oxford UP 2009 - English Result, p.62. Adapted.) Read the reported sentence below, from the text. Lustig told them he would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer. Which of the alternatives below corresponds to Lustig’s direct speech?
Consider the following sentence and the three alternatives to complete it. Calvin said, “I will never teach maths”. In the indirect speech this becomes 1. Calvin said that he would never teach maths. 2. Calvin said that he is never going to teach maths. 3. Calvin said that he was never going to teach maths. Which of the alternatives above can be considered grammatically correct?
I've been planning to call you for a long time.
EPCAR (AFA) 2013
Why Bilinguals Are Smarter Speaking two languages 5rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that 10the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with 11a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even protecting from dementia in old age. This view of bilingualism is 1remarkably different from 12the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that delayed a child’s academic and intellectual development. They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles. Bilinguals, 2for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital bins — one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle. In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. 13The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task. 6The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s 3so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving. 14Why does the fight between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought 7the bilingual advantage was centered primarily in an ability for inhibition that was improved by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals 4even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page. The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and 8there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life). In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In an initial set of tests, the infants were presented with an audio stimulus and then shown a puppet on one side of a screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set of tests, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not. Bilingualism’s effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism — measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency in each language — were more resistant than others to the beginning of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of occurrence. Nobody ever doubted the power of language. 9But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint? Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/18/opinion/sunday/the-benefitsof-bilingualism.html In the question “Why does the fight between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition?” (ref. 14) The author asked
I am happy to join 1__________ you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. In the process 2__________ gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom 3__________ drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. 4The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the 15Negro community must not lead us to distrust of 8all white people, for 13many of our white brothers, as evidenced by 5their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is 17inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. I have a 9dream that one day 11this nation will rise up and 18live out the true 16meaning of 6its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. 19This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. When we allow 10freedom to 12ring, when we let 7it ring from every state and every city, we will speed up that 14day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will join hands and sing the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” Adaptado de: LUTHER KING JR., Martin. I have a dream. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 06 set. 2013. Considere o segmento a seguir. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with (ref. 19). Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a reescrita mais adequada do segmento acima, em discurso indireto.
EPCAR (AFA) 2011
The Lion King This article is about Disney's 1994 film. 1The Lion King is a 1994 American animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation. 2Released to theaters on June 15, 1994 by Walt Disney Pictures, it is the 32nd film in the Walt Disney Animated Classics. 3The story, which was influenced by the Bible stories of Joseph and Moses and the William Shakespeare play Hamlet, takes place in a kingdom of anthropomorphic animals in Africa. 4The film was the highest grossing animated film of all time until the release of Finding Nemo. 5The Lion King still holds the record as the highest grossing traditionally animated film in history and belongs to an era known as the Disney Renaissance. The Lion King is the highest grossing 2D animated film of all time in the United States, 6and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the film for 8its music and story. During its release in 1994, the film grossed more than $783 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released that year, 7and it is currently the twenty-eighth highest-grossing feature film. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lion_King GLOSSARY: Feature film – a film that is 90 or more minutes long Gross – total Release – make public Praise – show approval The sentences below taken from the text were changed into Indirect Speech. Mark the one that was changed correctly.
The New York Times SCHOOLS RELAX CELLPHONE BANS, NODDING TO TREND By Matt Richtel LANSING, Mich. - Sitting in his second-period computer class at Eastern High School, Gray Taylor, 15, felt his cellphone vibrate. To avoid being caught by the teacher, he answered quietly - and discovered an unexpected caller. "Why are you answering the phone in class?" Gray's mother asked. He whispered back, "You're the one who called me". His mother said she had intended to leave a question on Gray's voice mail. Such scenes are playing out across the country, as hundreds of high schools have reluctantly agreed to relax their rules about cellphones in schools. Rather than banning the phones outright, as many once did, they are capitulating to parent demands and market realities, and allowing students to carry phones in school - though not to use them in class. The reversal is a significant change from policies of the 1990's, when school administrators around the country viewed cellphones as the tools of drug dealers. In Florida, carrying a cellphone in school could be punishable by a 10-day suspension. In Louisiana, it was deemed a crime, with a potential penalty of 30 days in jail. But now the phones have become tools used by parents to keep in touch with, and keep track of, their children. And schools are facing a more basic reality: it is no longer possible to enforce such bans. Thanks to the falling prices of mobile phones, and the aggressive efforts by carriers to market "family plans" to parents and teenagers, the phones have become so commonplace that trying to keep them out of schools would be like trying to enforce a ban on lip gloss or combs. Adapted from The New York Times, September 2004, www.nytimes.com The question "Why are you answering the phone in class?" in the reported speech will be:
RISKY BUSINESS: CAN TOM CRUISE SURVIVE A HOLLYWOOD ________? By Sean Smith and Johnnie L. Roberts In the end, it may be the best thing that could have happened to Tom Cruise. Viacom billionaire Sumner Redstone told The Wall Street Journal last week that his studio, Paramount, was not renewing Cruise's production-company deal after 14 years because 2"we don't think someone who effectuates creative suicide and costs the company revenue should be on the lot." Hollywood and the media erupted. Redstone was saying that Cruise's wacky behavior - jumping on Oprah's couch, espousing his Scientology beliefs - had hurt the 1box office for "Mission: Impossible III", which grossed $393 million worldwide, but $153 million less than "M:i:II." (Adapted from Newsweek) The sentence Mr. Redstone said, "We don't think someone who effectuates creative suicide and costs the company revenue should be on the lot" (ref. 2) in the reported speech would be:
Turning the first frame of the comic strip into the Reported Speech, we would have:
Read the following passage and answer the question Roraima is an interesting mountain located in the Guiana Highlands. The peak actually shares the border with Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana, but the mountain is almost always approached from the Venezuela side. The Brazil and Guyana sides are much more difficult. The mountain's highest point is Maverick Rock which is at and on the Venezuela side. http://www.summitpost.org/monte-roraima/151790 acess on 01/09/2015. Regarding to the reported speech, mark the correct alternative in this following sentence: I saw Babs a week ago and she told me: I will call you. She said that ___________ me, but she didn't.
I am happy to join ........ you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. In the process ........ gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom ........ drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. When we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every state and every city, we will speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will join hands and sing the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" Adaptado de: LUTHER KING JR., Martin. I have a dream. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 06 set. 2013. Considere o segmento a seguir. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. Assinale a alternativa que apresenta a reescrita mais adequada do segmento acima, em discurso indireto.
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